图示

描述已自动生成

 

Andrzej Marczewski 安德烈 · 马尔切夫斯基

 

Even Ninja 甚至是忍者

Monkeys Like to Play 猴子喜欢玩

Unicorn Edition 独角兽版

Gamification, Game Thinking and Motivational Design

游戏化,游戏思维和动机设计

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区
Gamified UK

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play: Unicorn Edition

即使忍者猴子喜欢玩: 独角兽版

Contents 内容

Contents 内容

Acknowledgements 鸣谢

Introduction 引言

The Theory of Games, Play and Gamification游戏理论、游戏与游戏化

The Science of Gamification Gamification 的科学

Building Gamified Solutions 构建游戏化的解决方案

Planning and Implementing your Gamification Design计划和实施你的游戏化设计

Final Thoughts 最后的想法

Glossary 词汇表

References 参考资料

Index 索引

About the author 关于作者

 

 

Introduction 引言

I have always been a gamer. One of my earliest memories is of playing games on the Apple II that my Dad had borrowed from work, Star Trek I believe. Since then, games have always been a big part of my life. From my Commodore 64, through to the SNES then LAN gaming at friends’ houses on Duke Nuke’em and Doom.

我一直是个游戏玩家。我最早的记忆之一是在我爸爸从工作中借来的苹果 II 上玩游戏,我相信是《星际迷航》。从那时起,游戏就一直是我生活的一大部分。从我的 Commodore 64,到 SNES,然后是在朋友家玩的局域网游戏。

At university, I discovered the joys of clan-based gaming when I joined the Elites of Starship Troopers playing Starship Troopers: Battlespace on the AOL network 1. This led me to start my own clan, Rages Renegades. Those years were important to me in ways I could never have realised!

在大学里,当我加入星河战队精英们玩《星河战队: AOL 网络1上的战场空间》时,我发现了氏族游戏的乐趣。这让我成立了自己的部落,Rages Renegades。这些年对我来说意义重大,我从未意识到这一点!

In 2006, I started Yet Another Review Site 2 to write about games. By then I had been a web designer for six years, been involved in creating interactive learning materials and had formed a love for all thing’s technology related.

2006年,我创建了 Yet Another Review Site 2来写游戏。那时我已经做了六年的网页设计师,参与了互动学习材料的创作,并且对所有与技术相关的东西都产生了热爱。

In 2012, these interests all seemed to collide when I discovered gamification. It was like a lightning bolt hitting me. All my thoughts on how important games could be to people, from learning to social good – were all catered for in gamification. I started to blog about it obsessively, learning everything I could about the topic. I released a book 3 in the same year and started to get involved in speaking and consulting on the topic.

2012年,当我发现游戏化时,这些兴趣似乎都发生了冲突。就像一道闪电击中了我。我所有关于游戏对人们有多重要的想法,从学习到社会公益,都在游戏化中得到了满足。我开始着迷地写博客,学习关于这个主题的所有知识。同年,我出版了第三本书,并开始参与这个话题的演讲和咨询。

What you have in your hands now is a kind of reboot of that original book, in fact, it is the second edition of that reboot (a reboot of a reboot???) Based on my blogs over the last few years as well as essays and articles, some of the content follows a similar theme to the original books, a lot of it is different, new or evolved – it is certainly better written and edited. Look at it as the Ultimate Edition with all of the DLC and patches added on.

现在你手中的是那本原著的一种重新启动,事实上,是那种重新启动的第二版(重新启动? ? ?)基于我过去几年的博客,以及文章和文章,一些内容遵循与原著相似的主题,很多内容是不同的,新的或演变的-它肯定是更好的写作和编辑。看看它作为终极版与所有的 DLC 和补丁添加。

It will take you on a journey through the theory behind games and play, into the more practical realms of designing gamified solutions, all through my eyes.

通过我的眼睛,它将带你进入游戏背后的理论和游戏的旅程,进入设计游戏化解决方案的更实际的领域。

My hope is that this book will equip you with enough information to feel confident enough to speak about gamification and start using it for your own projects.

我希望这本书能够为你提供足够的信息,让你有足够的信心谈论游戏化,并开始在你自己的项目中使用它。

A quick note on the title. I went through many iterations of the title. I went on Google+, Facebook, Twitter and more asking for advice. Then my daughter made an amazing comment. “Daddy, when I grow up I want to be a ninja or a unicorn with wings called Princess Unicorn.”

关于标题的一个简短说明。我经历了很多次这个名字的重复。我去了 Google + ,Facebook,Twitter,并且更多地寻求建议。然后我女儿做了一个惊人的评论。“爸爸,等我长大了,我想成为一个忍者,或者一个长着翅膀的独角兽,叫做独角兽公主。”

Then it struck me. It didn’t really matter what the title was, so I tried to think of the coolest thing I could. Who doesn’t love monkeys or ninjas? With this second edition, I was even able to include the unicorns! In fact, I nearly called this version “Even Unicorns Dream of Flying?” So, equipped with that insight into my mind, read on, enjoy and remember – even ninja monkeys (or unicorns) like to play!

然后我突然想到。标题是什么并不重要,所以我试着想出我能想到的最酷的东西。谁不喜欢猴子和忍者呢?有了这个第二版,我甚至可以包括独角兽!事实上,我差点就把这个版本叫做“独角兽梦想飞翔?”所以,带着这种洞察力进入我的大脑,继续读下去,享受并记住——甚至连忍者猴子(或独角兽)也喜欢玩!

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 So much has changed since the first edition. After the book was finished, I took my Master on holiday – despite his insistence that I kidnapped him. He soon went mad, talking about creating a new edition of the book. That was when we met our new friend, Rainbow Unicorn. New or heavily updated content will be highlighted by Rainbow for you with a unicorn! 自从第一版以来,已经发生了很大的变化。读完这本书后,我带着师父去度假——尽管他坚持说是我绑架了他。他很快就发疯了,说要创作这本书的新版本。那时我们认识了我们的新朋友彩虹独角兽。新的或大量更新的内容将突出显示彩虹为您与独角兽

 

徽标

中度可信度描述已自动生成

 

The Theory of Games, Play and Gamification

游戏理论、游戏与游戏化

徽标

描述已自动生成

What is Gamification? 什么是游戏化?

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

This chapter will show you some of the history of the word gamification as well as a few definitions. My Master’s definition is also there for you to 本章将向你展示游戏化这个词的一些历史以及一些定义。我师父的定义也在那里laugh 笑 look at. 看

Every story needs to have a beginning, and this is no different.

每个故事都需要一个开始,这也没什么不同。

Once upon a time, in 2002, Nick Pelling officially coined a word (at least that is the version I know) 4. That word is the whole reason you are now reading this book. The word was gamification. Nick had a vision. He wanted to make non-game related interfaces, such as cash machines (ATM’s), more like games. In his word’s gamification was:

很久很久以前,在2002年,尼克 · 佩林正式创造了一个词(至少我知道的是这个版本)。这个词就是你现在读这本书的全部原因。这个词就是游戏化。尼克看到了一个幻象。他希望制作与游戏无关的界面,比如自动取款机,更像游戏。用他的话来说,游戏化就是:

“Applying game-like accelerated user interface design to make electronic transactions both enjoyable and fast”

采用游戏式的加速用户界面设计,令电子交易更轻松愉快

Sadly, his dreams never came to fruition; he was ahead of his time. In fact, it was not until 2010 that it really started to appear in common usage. Since then the definition of gamification has evolved, in terms of both wording and meaning. Wikipedia’s history of definitions is quite interesting (to gamification geeks like me at least!) 5.

可悲的是,他的梦想从未实现,他走在了时代的前面。事实上,直到2010年,它才真正开始出现在普通用法中。从那时起,游戏化的定义在措辞和意义上都发生了演变。维基百科的定义历史相当有趣(至少对于像我这样的游戏化极客来说是这样的!)5.

Before I offer my own definition of gamification, it is worth quoting the ones you are likely to see most often. First up is Sebastian Deterding’s definition 6“The use of game design elements in non-game contexts,” which is the most widely recognised.

在我提出自己对游戏化的定义之前,值得引用一下你可能最常见到的游戏化。首先是塞巴斯蒂安 · 迪特丁的定义6,“在非游戏环境中使用游戏设计元素”,这是最广为人知的。

Another one that has gained popularity is Kevin Werbach’s 7 “The process of making activities more game-like,” which is my personal favourite from other experts.

另一个受欢迎的是 Kevin Werbach 的“使活动更像游戏的过程”,这是我个人最喜欢的其他专家的作品。

My definition, when cornered, is; 我的定义,当我走投无路的时候,是;

 “The use of game design metaphors to create more game-like and engaging experiences”.

“使用游戏设计的隐喻,创造更多的游戏类和参与的经验”。

The reason for this will become clear over the course of the book; however, here is a quick breakdown of its meaning.

其中的原因将在本书的过程中逐渐清晰; 然而,这里有一个对其意义的快速分解。

Game Design Metaphors: Lessons, elements and strategies from games and game design applied to non-game contexts.

游戏设计的隐喻: 课程,元素和策略从游戏和游戏设计应用到非游戏的背景。

Game-Like: The use of these metaphors to create experiences that feel related to games, without being games.

类似游戏: 使用这些比喻来创造感觉与游戏相关的体验,而不是游戏。

Engaging Experiences: This is the key to gamification, engagement. I define engagement as active, focused and intrinsically motivated participation. Therefore, with gamification, we are trying to create experiences that promote this.

参与体验: 这是游戏化、参与的关键。我把参与定义为积极的、专注的和内在动机的参与。因此,通过游戏化,我们正在尝试创造促进这种体验的体验。

At times, you will be asked to give a simple definition for people who really do not get all the fuss about games. I find the following quite helpful;

有时候,你会被要求给那些对游戏不感兴趣的人一个简单的定义。我发现以下内容很有帮助;

“The use of concepts and elements that make games engaging and enjoyable, in other areas of work or life in general”.

“在工作或生活的其他领域中,使游戏具有吸引力和享受性的概念和元素的使用”。

Do not be afraid of the word gamification. It has a bad reputation at times, but that does not mean you should not use it. Some will tell you that you should speak about “Behavioural Change” or “Human Centric Design”, and I have been guilty of this myself.

不要害怕游戏化这个词。它有时名声不好,但这并不意味着你不应该使用它。有些人会告诉你,你应该谈论“行为改变”或“以人为中心的设计”,而我自己也对此感到内疚。

However, you are better off getting a good understanding of what gamification really is (by reading this book of course…) and then be able to stand your ground with compelling reasons why gamification is so great!

然而,你最好能够很好的理解游戏化到底是什么(当然是通过阅读这本书…) ,然后能够站在你的立场,有充分的理由说明为什么游戏化是如此伟大!

Something that is vital to say here is that gamification is not the process of making games! I will go into much more detail later, but just keep that in mind. We are not trying to make Super Mario Excel or Call of Word 2013! In fact, Raph Koster made a wonderful statement on his blog whilst I was writing this, that I think is very relevant here:

有一点很重要,那就是游戏化不是制作游戏的过程!稍后我会详细介绍,但请记住这一点。我们并不是要制作超级马里奥 Excel 或者 Call of Word 2013!事实上,在我写这篇文章的时候,Raph Koster 在他的博客上做了一个精彩的声明,我认为这是非常相关的:

“UX design is about removing problems from the user. Game design is about giving problems to the user.”

“用户体验设计是为用户解决问题,而游戏设计是为用户解决问题。”

If you consider that gamification is a form of user experience (UX) design, you can see just how different the two really are.

如果你认为游戏化是用户体验(UX)设计的一种形式,那么你就会看到这两者的区别。

 

What Are Games and Play?

什么是游戏和玩?

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 As the title suggests, I love to play. Sadly, my Master is not as fun as he makes out. It has been so long since I last played, I have almost forgotten how. This chapter is my favourite as it reminds me of what play is all about. 正如书名所示,我喜欢玩。可悲的是,我的主人并不像他所说的那样有趣。我已经很久没有打球了,我几乎忘记怎么打了。这一章是我最喜欢的,因为它使我想起了戏剧的全部内容

Defining Play

定义游戏

There are many definitions of play that people with an interest probably argue over! The most well know is that of Johan Huizinga from his book Homo Ludens. He describes play in the following way.

有很多关于游戏的定义,有兴趣的人可能会争论不休!最有名的是约翰 · 胡伊青加在他的书《卢登斯人》中的描述。他是这样描述玩耍的。

“Summing up the formal characteristic of play, we might call it a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary’ life as being ‘not serious’ but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and in an orderly manner. It promotes the formation of social groupings that tend to surround themselves with secrecy and to stress the difference from the common world by disguise or other means. 8

“总结了游戏的形式特征,我们可以称之为一种自由活动,它完全有意识地站在‘普通’生活之外,表现为‘不严肃’,但同时又强烈而彻底地吸引着玩家。它是一种没有物质利益的活动,不能获得任何利润。它按照固定的规则和有序的方式,在自己适当的时间和空间界限内前进。它促进了社会群体的形成,这些群体往往围绕在自己的身边,并通过伪装或其他手段强调与共同世界的差异。8”

Mine is a little less complex and fits with my personal philosophies on play.

我的游戏没有那么复杂,也符合我个人的游戏哲学。

Play is a free-form activity that is undertaken because it brings fun or joy.

游戏是一种自由的活动,因为它能带来乐趣或快乐。

The nature of play helps us to understand the building blocks of games. The rest of this chapter will go into this in much more detail, suffice to say – it really is not as simple as it seems, but it is fascinating!

游戏的本质帮助我们理解游戏的构建模块。本章的其余部分将更详细地介绍这个问题,足以说明——它实际上并不像看起来那么简单,但是它很吸引人!

Lusory Attitude

旅游态度

Play has been an area of academic study since the times of Plato! Whilst I researched play, one word became hard to ignore – ludic.

自从柏拉图时代以来,玩耍就是学术研究的一个领域!在我研究游戏的时候,有一个词很难被忽视——游戏。

It comes up often in papers and articles about play. Ludic is derived from the Latin for play, ludus, and is defined as “Showing spontaneous and undirected playfulness” 9.

它经常出现在关于游戏的报纸和文章中。Ludic 来源于拉丁语中的 play,ludus,被定义为“表现出自发的和无指导的嬉戏”。

Ludic turns up in various forms when academics speak about play. Here are a few examples.

当学者们谈论游戏时,游戏会以各种形式出现。以下是一些例子。

  • Ludus: the original Latin for play

卢德斯: 拉丁语的原意

  • Ludeme:  an element or unit of play 10

游戏单元: 游戏中的一个元素或单位

  • Prelusory goals: goals set by the game

预设目标: 游戏设定的目标

  • Lusory means: rules set by the game

游戏的意思是: 游戏设定的规则

  • Lusory attitude: a playful mindset, an understanding that you are entering play

游戏态度: 一种好玩的心态,一种你正在进入游戏的理解

The last three are from Bernard Suit’s definition of a game described in his seminal book The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia 10.

后三个来自于伯纳德 · 西特在其开创性的著作《蚱蜢: 游戏、生活和乌托邦10》中对游戏的定义。

“To play a game is to attempt to achieve a specific state of affairs [prelusory goal], using only means permitted by rules [lusory means], where the rules prohibit use of more efficient in favour of less efficient means [constitutive rules], and where the rules are accepted just because they make possible such activity [lusory attitude].”

“玩游戏就是试图达到一种特定的状态[诱惑性目标] ,只使用规则[诱惑性手段]允许的手段,规则禁止使用更有效的手段,而偏向效率较低的手段[组成性规则] ,规则之所以被接受,只是因为它们使这种活动[诱惑性态度]成为可能。”

This “lusory” attitude is the key that separates play from any other activity. As an example, read this passage as if it related to a job or academic studies.

这种“享乐”的态度是游戏区别于其他任何活动的关键。举个例子,把这篇文章当作是关于工作或学术研究的。

 

  • You start with a tutorial. It sets the context for what you are doing as well as giving you the basic skills to start.

你从一个教程开始。它为你正在做的事情设置了背景,同时也给了你开始的基本技能。

  • You are then given a set of tasks to complete and goals.

然后给你一系列的任务去完成和设定目标。

  • Next, you start performing simple tasks repeatedly to improve your knowledge and skills.

接下来,你开始反复执行简单的任务,以提高你的知识和技能。

  • As your level of skill increases, new challenges become available and new goals are set. These require you to learn new skills and increase your abilities.

随着你技能水平的提高,新的挑战就会出现,新的目标也会设定。这些需要你学习新的技能,提高你的能力。

  • Along the way, there are surprises and unexpected events. You will meet new people; some will be friends who you will work with, some will not.

一路上,总会有意想不到的事情发生。你会遇到新的朋友,有些人会成为你工作中的朋友,有些人不会。

  • All the while, you will be collecting experience and currency as you complete progress.

与此同时,你将收集经验和货币,因为你完成的进展。

Now, read it with a lusory or playful attitude. Approach it as if you were reading about a new game.

现在,以一种愉悦或者嬉戏的态度来阅读,就像你正在阅读一个新游戏一样。

Play, Toys and Games

游戏、玩具及游戏

All of this raises the question of what play is and how it is different from games.

所有这些都提出了一个问题: 什么是游戏,它与游戏有什么不同。

Play

玩耍

There are many views of play out there. My view is that play is a free-form activity that is undertaken because it brings fun and joy. In this sort of description, play is an activity – it follows a similar line of thought to that proposed by historian, Johan Huizinga in Homo Ludens 8.

关于比赛有很多观点。我的观点是,游戏是一种自由的活动,因为它带来了乐趣和欢乐。在这种描述中,游戏是一种活动——它遵循的思路与历史学家约翰 · 胡伊青加在《卢登斯人》中提出的思路相似。

Huizinga also gave us another important concept. When considering games and play, the Magic Circle. The Magic Circle can be visualised as a boundary between reality and play, with you sat at the centre of it as you play.

胡伊青加还给了我们另一个重要的概念。当考虑游戏和游戏时,魔术圈。魔法圈可以被想象成现实和游戏之间的边界,当你玩的时候你坐在它的中心。

There are many variations on this idea, most famously Frames from Gregory Bateson 11 and its expansion by Erving Goffman. 12 This expansion described a frame as a set of unspoken, implicit rules that surround the fantasy world, created through play, referred to as meta-communication.

这个观点有许多变体,其中最著名的是格雷戈里 · 贝特森的《框架》11和欧文 · 高夫曼的扩展。12. 这种扩展把一个框架描述为一系列围绕着幻想世界的不言而喻的、隐含的规则,这些规则通过游戏创造出来,被称为 meta communication。

Play does not need to have a point or a defined goal to it. It exists within a set of rules created by the person or people playing and is born in the imagination. Often it is a way of exploring the boundaries and extremes of something.

比赛不需要有一个点或一个明确的目标。它存在于一系列由玩家创造的规则之中,并且诞生于想象之中。它通常是一种探索事物边界和极端的方式。

Play is essential for children as it teaches them about their environment and themselves 13. It is also important to consider that children play just because they can, and it entertains them! Like adults, they are seeking novel experiences.

对孩子来说,玩耍是必不可少的,因为它教会他们关于环境和他们自己的知识。同样重要的是,要考虑到孩子们玩耍仅仅是因为他们可以玩耍,而且这会使他们开心!像成年人一样,他们也在寻求新奇的体验。

When my daughters were very young, they used to engage in pure play. They did things because they were new and judging by their smiles and their laughter – they enjoyed it. I would go so far as to say they found it fun. Play did not need external objects at first; they could just move their foot and find that hilarious. As they developed, their own movements became less interesting, probably because they had discovered the boundaries of what could be done, so players needed to have some help. They would pick up props and use them in ways they found entertaining. These props became toys.

当我的女儿们还很小的时候,她们总是单纯地玩耍。他们之所以这样做,是因为他们是新手,从他们的笑容和笑声来判断——他们乐在其中。我甚至可以说他们觉得这很有趣。一开始,Play 并不需要外部物体,他们只需要移动他们的脚,就会发现这很滑稽。随着他们的发展,他们自己的动作变得不那么有趣,可能是因为他们已经发现了可以做什么的界限,所以玩家需要一些帮助。他们会拿起道具,用他们认为有趣的方式使用它们。这些道具变成了玩具。

Toys

玩具

Toys are an interesting concept when considering games and play. In this context, toys are objects or representation of objects that have their own implicit rules but do not come with explicit rules as standard. Game designer Chris Crawford neatly describes the nature of toys in a series of dichotomies he created to define games 14.

玩具是一个有趣的概念,当考虑游戏和玩。在这种情况下,玩具是对象或对象的表示,有自己的隐含规则,但没有明确的规则作为标准。游戏设计师克里斯 · 克劳福德用一系列二分法巧妙地描述了玩具的本质,他创造了这些二分法来定义游戏14。

“If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy.”

“如果玩具没有目标,那么它就是一个玩具。”

Examples would be a ball, a stick, a Transformer, etc. You can play with them in any manner you chose, confined only by the toy’s own rules: effect of gravity, shape, fragility etc.

例如一个球、一根棍子、一个变形金刚等等。你可以用任何你选择的方式玩它们,只受玩具自身规则的限制: 重力、形状、脆弱性等的影响。

If you throw a ball, depending on the material the ball is made from, it might bounce, it might roll, or it might stop dead. These are not rules that the person playing imposes on the ball. If you throw a Transformer in the same way as a ball, it will obey its own rules. It will not bounce and will probably break when you throw it at a wall!

如果你扔一个球,取决于球的材质,它可能会反弹,可能会滚动,也可能会停止运动。这些规则不是球员对球施加的。如果你像扔球一样扔一个变形金刚,它会遵守它自己的规则。它不会反弹,而且当你把它扔到墙上的时候,它很可能会碎掉!

There is another type of toy worth mentioning – I refer to it as a playground or a toy box; often you will hear them called sandboxes. This is an entire environment rather than a single object. When you examine a game such as Minecraft in the creator mode, you are in a virtual world that has its own implicit rules for how the world behaves. This world has constraints that you as the player have to abide by.

还有另一种类型的玩具值得一提-我指的是一个操场或玩具箱,往往你会听到他们所谓的沙箱。这是一个完整的环境,而不是一个单一的对象。当你在创造者模式下检查一个游戏,比如《我的世界》 ,你就是在一个虚拟世界里,这个世界有它自己隐含的规则来决定它是如何运作的。这个世界有一些约束,你作为玩家必须遵守。

How far you can dig down, how far you can build up, how certain blocks behave with other blocks and more.

你能挖多深,你能建多远,某些积木与其他积木的相互作用等等。

However, within those constraints, you can do what you want. You can use the world itself as a toy and play with it. That can include turning the world into the setting for a game!

然而,在这些约束条件下,你可以做你想做的事情。你可以把世界本身当作一个玩具来玩耍。这可以包括把世界变成一个游戏的设置!

Going back to my daughter’s experiences. At first, they would just play with the toys, they would not create any discernible rules around how they interacted with the toys. After a while, that was no longer enough. It was not fun just to throw bricks at the wall; they started to add rules to the play like stacking them as high as they could or lining up the colours. The free-form play now had structure – it had become a simple game.

回到我女儿的经历。起初,他们只是玩玩具,他们不会创造任何明显的规则,他们如何与玩具互动。过了一段时间,这已经不够了。向墙上扔砖头并不好玩,他们开始在游戏中增加规则,比如尽可能地把砖头堆得高高的,或者把颜色排列起来。自由形式的游戏现在有了结构——它变成了一个简单的游戏。

Games

游戏

Like play, games have many, many definitions. To illustrate this, here are just a few!

像玩一样,游戏有很多很多的定义。为了说明这一点,这里只是一些定义!

“[…] a word like “game” points to a somewhat diffuse “system” of prototype frames, among which some frame-shifts are easy, but others involve more strain”像“ game”这样的单词指向一个有点分散的原型框架“系统”,其中一些框架移位很容易,但另一些涉及更多的压力 15
Marvin Minsky 马文 · 明斯基

 “The voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles” ”自愿努力克服不必要的障碍”16
Bernard Suits 伯纳德套装

“A series of meaningful choices” 「一系列有意义的选择」 17
Sid Meier 希德 · 梅尔

 “A game is a problem-solving activity, approached with a playful attitude.”“游戏是一种解决问题的活动,以游戏的态度进行。” 18
Jesse Schell  杰西 · 谢尔

“A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.” “游戏是一个系统,在这个系统中,玩家参与一个由规则定义的人为冲突,从而导致一个可量化的结果。”19
Eric Zimmerman and Katie Salen 埃里克 · 齐默尔曼和凯蒂 · 萨伦

“A structured experience with rules and goals that is fun.”“有规则和目标的结构化体验很有趣。”
Amy Jo Kim 艾米 · 乔 · 金

Simply put, play begins to become a game when you start to add explicit goals and impose system-based rules.

简单地说,当你开始添加明确的目标并强加基于系统的规则时,游戏就开始成为一种游戏。

If I kick the ball through a goal, I get a point and I win (Zero sum). If we work together to get the ball through a series of obstacles, we win (non-Zero sum). For some, this will boil down to competition either with the system or with other players, cooperation, or collaboration.

如果我把球踢进了球门,我就得了一分,我就赢了(零和)。如果我们一起努力,让球穿过一系列的障碍,我们就赢了(非零和)。对于一些人来说,这可以归结为与系统或其他参与者的竞争、合作或协作。

You can summarise the three important distinctions between games and play as:

你可以总结游戏和游戏的三个重要区别:

  • Prelusory goals: Games have goals to achieve as set by an external source such as the game designer.

预设目标: 游戏有由外部资源(如游戏设计者)设定的目标。

  • Lusory means: Games have rules that define how you must achieve these prelusory goals.

游戏的意思是: 游戏有规则,规定你必须如何实现这些诱人的目标。

  • Constitutive rules: Games have rules that create challenges that must be completed to achieve goals. Rather than going from A to B in a straight line, you must overcome obstacles and solve puzzles going A to Z to E to B and back again!

构成性规则: 游戏有一些规则,这些规则创造了必须完成才能实现目标的挑战。与其沿着直线从 a 到 b,你必须克服障碍,解决从 a 到 z 到 e 再到 b 再回来的难题!

Bringing It All Together

把所有的东西放在一起

Put simply, the relationships between games, play and toys can be written like this;

简单地说,游戏、游戏和玩具之间的关系可以这样写;

  • You play. 你来玩
  • You play a game. 你玩一个游戏
  • You play with a toy. 你玩一个玩具
  • You play a game with a toy.

你用一个玩具玩游戏。

Figure 1 is my attempt to summarise all of this as neatly as possible.

图1是我试图尽可能简洁地总结所有这些内容的结果。

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 1 Play, Games and Toys

图1游戏、游戏和玩具

Play in Context

上下文中的游戏

The concept of play is very important to me. I feel that it is one of the true keys to engagement in adults, but it often seems that adults often have no idea how to play. They have the intrinsic desire to play battered out of them by the “real” world. Unlike children, they often don’t see the potential for play in the world around them. Some blame work for this – they often say that the opposite of play is work. However, I prefer to go with Dr Stuart Brown’s (founder of the National Institute of Play)  analysis in this case, that the opposite of play is actually depression 20.

游戏的概念对我来说非常重要。我觉得这是成年人参与的真正关键之一,但似乎成年人经常不知道如何玩耍。他们有着被“真实”世界击垮的内在欲望。与孩子不同,他们常常看不到周围世界中玩耍的潜力。有些人把这归咎于工作——他们经常说玩的反义词是工作。然而,我更倾向于斯图亚特 · 布朗博士(美国国家游戏研究所的创始人)的分析,在这种情况下,游戏的反义词实际上是抑郁20。

Work is actually very similar to play and even more like games. The main difference is perception. We speak about lusory attitude a lot where play and games are concerned. As mentioned earlier, this is where you approach a non-play situation with a playful attitude. Just this change in mindset can change your perception of a situation. Therefore, with the right attitude, work can seem much more playful or gameful (note – these are not the same thing!!!)

工作实际上和游戏非常相似,甚至更像游戏。主要的区别在于感知。在游戏和游戏中,我们经常谈到迷人的态度。正如前面提到的,这就是你用好玩的态度处理非游戏情境的方法。仅仅是这种心态上的改变就能改变你对一种状况的看法。因此,有了正确的态度,工作可以看起来更有趣或游戏性(注意——这些不是一回事! ! !)

Playfulness vs Gamefulness

游戏性与游戏性

First and foremost, Playfulness and Gamefulness both need a safe environment. Playfulness requires a great deal of freedom and a lack of explicit rules imposed by the system or environment. In contrast, Gamefulness is a little less freeform, there are explicit rules that are maintained by the system.

首先,游戏性和好斗性都需要一个安全的环境。娱乐性需要大量的自由,以及系统或环境所强加的明确规则的缺乏。相比之下,绝妙性没有那么自由,有明确的规则由系统维护。

Play Sits Between Chaos and Control

游戏介于混乱与控制之间

Over the years I have concluded that play sits between chaos and control in the context of the world within which play is occurring. It is not totally without rules, but it is also not totally beholden to them.

多年来,我得出结论,在游戏正在发生的世界背景下,游戏处于混乱和控制之间。它并非完全没有规则,但也并非完全受制于规则。

However, as I dove deeper into thinking about where play sits in our understanding of the world and how we react to it. I realised that it is not quite as simple as chaos and control, it also had a lot to do with intent. Did we explicitly mean to do something or is it more implicit in nature? It occurred to me that play also sits between implicit and explicit desires and actions. We play at a conscious and subconscious level.

然而,当我更深入地思考游戏在我们对世界的理解中所处的位置,以及我们如何应对它时。我意识到这并不像混乱和控制那么简单,它还与意图有很大关系。我们是明确表示要做某件事,还是它本质上更隐含?我突然想到,游戏也位于内隐和外显的欲望和行为之间。我们在有意识和潜意识的水平上玩耍。

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 2 Play in Context 图2上下文中的游戏

I mapped out a few other concepts to give this more context. For instance, I see anarchy as a deliberate act that leads to chaos. Art is implicit to the artist, that is it comes from the soul. However, the artist must have a level of control from the artist. They must get their ideas down in a way that fits their vision. That takes control.

我制定了一些其他的概念来给出更多的上下文。例如,我认为无政府状态是一种蓄意的行为,它会导致混乱。艺术对于艺术家来说是含蓄的,那就是它来自于灵魂。然而,艺术家必须有一定程度的控制从艺术家。他们必须以适合自己愿景的方式记录自己的想法。这就掌控了一切。

Fear is an internal emotion that often comes from a lack of control – from chaos, not understanding what is happening around us. And we all know what fear leads to (puts on a Yoda Voice“Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.” At the far end of this, we find depression, a complete loss of all control in every way.

恐惧是一种内在的情绪,通常来自于缺乏控制——来自于混乱,不理解我们周围发生的事情。我们都知道恐惧会导致什么(尤达的声音)“恐惧是通往黑暗面的道路。恐惧导致愤怒。愤怒导致仇恨。仇恨导致痛苦。”最后,我们发现抑郁症,完全失去了对一切的控制。

Self-expression is also internal but sits between chaos and control. Think of an artist who covers themselves in paint and rolls around on a sheet of paper. Whilst they have an idea and have some level of control – there is a random, chaotic nature to it as well.

自我表达也是内在的,但是位于混乱和控制之间。想想一个艺术家,他用颜料把自己包裹起来,在一张纸上打滚。虽然他们有一个想法,有一定程度的控制-有一个随机,混乱的性质,以及。

At the other end of the scale, we have games. They have a much more explicit control of the player’s experience. The reason this is not at the far top right is because there the player still has some freedom in most, if not all, games. However, with work, this seems to be much less the case – especially in more “traditional” jobs. Explicit Control rules!

在天平的另一端,我们有游戏。他们对玩家的体验有着更加明确的控制。之所以没有出现在右上角,是因为玩家在大多数游戏中,如果不是全部,仍然有一些自由。然而,对于工作来说,情况似乎并非如此——尤其是在更为“传统”的工作中。显式控制规则!

As you can finally see, Play sits somewhere in the middle of all of this. It is implicit, explicit, chaotic and controlled all at once. Hey, I didn’t say it was simple!

正如你终于可以看到的,Play 位于这一切的中间。它是隐性的、显性的、混沌的、可同时控制的。嘿,我可没说这很简单!

So What?

那又怎样?

This is all very philosophical, but there is a useful point to this. To get the best out of people you need to allow them a level of autonomy, but not so much that it descends into chaos, There also needs to be a level of control, but not so much that they are unable to make decisions for themselves. This balance helps to give them the freedom they need, within a framework that supports them.

这些都是非常有哲学意义的,但这里有一个有用的观点。为了让人们发挥最大的潜力,你需要给他们一定程度的自主权,但不要让他们陷入混乱,还需要一定程度的控制,但不要太多,以至于他们不能自己做决定。这种平衡帮助他们在一个支持他们的框架内获得他们需要的自由。

Types of Rules in Play and Games

游戏规则的类型

As mentioned, play is not devoid of rules. It is just that the rules seem less obvious to the observer. When talking about play, this perceived lack of rules is often emphasised as a big difference between games and play. Not everyone is quite as black and white on that, myself included. What play lacks is what I refer to as system rules. It is still beholden to other types of rules, what I am now calling inherent rules and meta-rules.

如前所述,游戏并非没有规则。只是这些规则对于观察者来说似乎不那么明显。当谈到游戏时,这种缺乏游戏规则的感知常常被强调为游戏和游戏之间的巨大差异。并不是每个人对此都非黑即白,包括我自己。游戏缺少的是我所说的系统规则。它仍然受制于其他类型的规则,我现在称之为内在规则和元规则。

Inherent Rules

固有规则

Inherent rules are those rules that affect play or toys in ways that are not controlled by outside influences; such as a player or a game designer. For instance, a ball has several inherent rules. It is affected by gravity, it has mass, volume, wind resistance etc. These things are all inherent to the ball. In a game like Minecraft, the inherent rules of the game would include how high you can build, how deep you can dig, what you must combine to make certain objects. The player plays within these inherent rules.

固有的规则是那些不受外界影响,如玩家或游戏设计师控制的,影响玩耍或玩具的规则。例如,一个球有几个固有的规则。它受重力影响,有质量、体积、风阻等。这些都是球所固有的。在像《我的世界》这样的游戏中,游戏的内在规则包括你可以建造多高,你可以挖掘多深,你必须结合什么来制造特定的物体。玩家在这些内在规则中玩耍。

System Rules

系统规则

System rules are rules that are added by the player or the designer that are there to create the game. If you are bouncing a ball seemingly aimlessly, this could be considered play. The inherent rules control the activity more than anything. How high the ball can bounce, for example? If you then decided that you must bounce the ball as high as you can and catch it with your left hand, you are adding system rules, you are creating a simple game. You are deliberately adding an obstruction to just bouncing the ball and catching it!

系统规则是由玩家或设计师添加的规则,用于创建游戏。如果你看上去漫无目的地弹球,这可以被认为是玩。内在的规则比任何东西都更能控制活动。例如,球能弹多高?如果你决定你必须把球弹到尽可能高的地方,然后用左手接住它,你就是在增加系统规则,你是在创造一个简单的游戏。你故意添加了一个障碍物,只是为了弹球和接住它!

Meta-Rules

元规则

These are rules that go beyond what you would consider written or system-imposed rules. These are fluid rules that can change moment by moment. These are the rules that define how play unfolds. They are the unspoken rules that children manage to communicate to each other when they are playing. The situation is constantly changing, but they always seem to be able to adapt to the changes without fuss. Mrs Dawkin’s tea party takes a sinister turn as Action Man invades and takes Teddy Ruckspin hostage. These are rules about rules, rules beyond rules, unspoken rules, unwritten rules and quite frankly – unfathomable rules to those not involved directly in the play!

这些规则超出了您所认为的编写规则或系统强加的规则。这些是可以随时改变的流动规则。这些就是定义游戏如何展开的规则。这些都是孩子们在玩耍时互相交流的潜规则。形势在不断变化,但他们似乎总是能够毫不费力地适应变化。道金夫人的茶会在行动人入侵并劫持泰迪 · 鲁克斯宾时发生了不祥的转变。这些是关于规则的规则,超越规则的规则,不言而喻的规则,不成文的规则,以及对于那些没有直接参与到游戏中的人来说相当难以理解的规则!

Toys/Play/Games

玩具/游戏/游戏

I don’t consider just games and play on their own, I always include toys. Toys can be an essential part of games and play. Toys are just objects.

我不仅仅考虑游戏和自己玩,我总是包括玩具。玩具可以是游戏和游戏的重要组成部分。玩具只是物品。

They have inherent rules, as I said earlier, but really, they must have other rules associated with them to be included in play and games. A ball does not play with itself and is certainly not a game without some kind of system rules. On their own, they just have inherent rules.

它们有内在的规则,正如我之前所说的,但实际上,它们必须有其他与之相关的规则,才能包含在游戏和游戏中。一个球不是自己玩的,当然也不是一个没有某种系统规则的游戏。就他们自己而言,他们只是有固有的规则。

Play, as discussed has inherent rules and these meta-rules. Games have system rules as well as inherent rules. A toy can exist without play or games, play can exist without toys or games. Games, however, must have play to exist.

游戏,正如所讨论的有内在的规则和这些元规则。游戏有系统规则,也有内在规则。一个玩具可以不用玩或游戏而存在,玩具可以不用玩具或游戏而存在。然而,游戏必须有游戏才能存在。

In diagrammatic form (as is my way) this looks a bit like the following

在图解的形式(这是我的方式) ,这看起来有点像下面

图片包含 形状

描述已自动生成 Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 3 Play, Toys and Games

图3游戏,玩具和游戏

Inherent rules affect games, play and toys. Meta-rules affect play, and in turn games (you can’t have a game without play!). Finally, system rules that only affect games.

内在的规则影响游戏,玩耍和玩具。元规则影响游戏,反过来游戏(你不能有一个游戏没有玩!).最后,只影响游戏的系统规则。

The Meta-Rules of Play

游戏的元规则

Having introduced the concept of Meta-Rules, it seems sensible to expand on them a little. As a reminder, these were the non-system or inherent rules that guide how people play.

在引入了“ Meta-Rules”的概念之后,对它们进行一些扩展似乎是明智的。作为一个提醒,这些都是非系统或内在的规则,指导人们如何玩。

I have broken them down into four categories; social, contextual, communication and personal.

我把它们分为四类: 社交、情境、沟通和个人。

背景图案

低可信度描述已自动生成 Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 4 The Meta Rules of Play

图4游戏的元规则

Communication

沟通

Communication and empathy play an enormous part in collaborative play. I have identified four types that help to control play.

交流和同理心在合作游戏中扮演着重要的角色。我已经确定了四种类型来帮助控制游戏。

  • Verbal 口头的
    • The most obvious form of communication – yelling instructions or updates!

最明显的沟通形式——大喊大叫的指示或更新!

  • Intuition 直觉
    • Sensing how others are reacting to you and those around them, that feeling that you know something has changed based on subtle hints from others.

感觉到别人对你和他们周围的人的反应,那种你知道某些事情已经改变的感觉是基于别人的微妙暗示。

  • Body Language 肢体语言
    • Almost as unsubtle as verbal communication, you can tell what other people playing are feeling with how they appear. Crossed arms, looking unhappy, looking to the left to indicate where you should go next etc.

几乎和语言交流一样直白,你可以看出其他玩家对他们的表现有什么感觉。交叉双臂,看起来不高兴,向左看,指示你下一步该去哪里等等。

  • Emotional 情绪化
    • A layer on top of other types of communication and similar in style to intuition, emotional communication is understanding the emotional subtext of other types of communication. A player may communicate in a happy way, but there could be other underlying emotions.

情感交流是在其他类型交流的基础上,在风格上类似于直觉,情感交流是理解其他类型交流的情感潜台词。一个玩家可能以一种快乐的方式交流,但是也可能有其他潜在的情感。

Social

社交

Social meta-rules are more about what society expects. When playing, there are some things that others don’t expect – based on social rules.

社会元规则更多的是关于社会期望的东西。玩的时候,有些东西是别人没有预料到的——基于社会规则。

Whilst I have broken these down into three headings, they are all linked. There is an expected behaviour based on culture and the norms for that culture.

虽然我已经把它们分为三个标题,但它们都是相互关联的。基于文化和这种文化的规范,有一种预期的行为。

For instance, if you are play acting mummy’s and daddy’s, it would be very unexpected by most cultural norms and standards for one player to jump up and start pretending to shoot all the others!

例如,如果你扮演爸爸妈妈的角色,按照大多数文化规范和标准,一个玩家跳起来假装射杀所有其他人是非常出乎意料的!

Context

背景

Play is contextual, it can change depending on where people are, what they are playing with and how they feel.

游戏是有背景的,它可以根据人们在哪里,他们在玩什么和他们的感觉而改变。

  • Environment 环境
    • What are the surroundings whilst playing? How does that affect what can and can’t be done? It’s the difference between playing catch in a field and catch on a cliff edge!

演奏时的环境是什么?这会如何影响什么能做什么不能做?这就是在野外玩接球和在悬崖边接球的区别!

  • Mood 情绪
    • The mood of the people playing can change rapidly, this can then change the emphasis of play and how others react to play. If you are playing alone with dolls and are happy, you may be making up stories of going to the beach. If you are sad or have been traumatised, your play acting may take a darker turn.

人们玩耍的情绪可以迅速改变,这就可以改变玩耍的重点和其他人对玩耍的反应。如果你一个人和洋娃娃玩耍并且很开心,你可能会编造去海滩的故事。如果你感到悲伤或受到精神创伤,你的戏剧表演可能会有一个更黑暗的转折点。

  • Toy / Object 玩具/物件
    • If you are playing with a toy of some sort, that can drastically change what you are playing. It may be fun to bounce a ball off a wall, but less so if you are then handed a wooden block instead!

如果你正在玩某种玩具,这可以彻底改变你正在玩什么。从墙上弹球可能会很有趣,但是如果你接着被递给一个木块,那就没那么有趣了!

Personal

个人资料

Everyone is different and what they find enjoyable or fun is also very different. Each person has their own preferences, personal code (i.e. moral code or code of conduct) and of course fears.

每个人都是不同的,他们觉得有趣或者有趣的东西也是非常不同的。每个人都有自己的偏好、个人准则(即道德准则或行为准则) ,当然还有恐惧。

  • Code 代码
    • This is what a player is prepared to do based on their own moral judgement. Some kids may not want to be involved in certain types of play, just as adults may not! This will guide how they react during play and the ever-changing meta-rules!

这是玩家根据自己的道德判断准备做的事情。有些孩子可能不想参与某些类型的游戏,正如成年人可能不想!这将指导他们如何反应在游戏和不断变化的元规则!

  • Preferences 偏好
    • As I say, not everyone is the same. Some may like to play with a ball, others would prefer to act out plays with dolls.

正如我所说,不是每个人都是一样的。有些人可能喜欢玩球,有些人则喜欢玩洋娃娃。

  • Fears 恐惧
    • Fear is a great motivator. That example of playing catch on a cliff. I would not do it, but some might!

恐惧是一个巨大的动力。那个在悬崖上玩接球的例子。我不会这么做,但有些人可能会这么做!

A lot of things in life are very game-like in nature, especially work. There are strict rules about how tasks must be completed. Completion of tasks and compliance with rules is rewarded (you get paid), breaking these rules leads to negative consequences (reprimands, warnings, getting fired).

生活中的很多事情在本质上都非常像游戏,尤其是工作。如何完成任务有严格的规定。完成任务和遵守规则会得到奖励(你会得到报酬) ,打破这些规则会导致负面后果(训斥、警告、被解雇)。

What we don’t see very often is the more play-like side of games being included in real-world tasks such as work. The lack of structure, the freedom to experiment and more importantly, to fail, are all missing.

我们不经常看到的是,在现实世界的任务中,比如工作,包含了游戏更像玩耍的一面。缺乏结构,缺乏试验的自由,更重要的是,缺乏失败。

Very often what we are doing in gamification is trying to inject some more play into these types of system. Elements that are fun just because they are fun, simulated environments to allow failure and learning in safety, more freedom to experiment and innovate etc. Of course, on top of that, we are adding elements that make things feel a bit more like a game. Adding new purpose, rapid feedback, increased interactivity, concentrating on Flow (explained later) and more.

通常我们在游戏化中所做的就是试图在这些类型的系统中注入更多的游戏。有趣的元素只是因为它们有趣,模拟的环境允许失败和安全的学习,更多的自由实验和创新等等。当然,除此之外,我们还增加了一些元素,让事情看起来更像是一场游戏。增加新的目标,快速反馈,增加交互性,专注于心流(稍后解释)等等。

As an adult, with children of my own, it is interesting to see how adults deal with situations that children find simple. I have seen grown men reduced to arguments in projects because no one set certain rules. For some reason, their mature ways of thinking have evolved to preclude imagination totally. If they are not told exactly what to do, they just can’t cope and think their way out of a situation they have not been programmed to deal with.

作为一个成年人,有我自己的孩子,看到成年人如何处理孩子们觉得简单的情况是很有趣的。我见过成年人在项目中因为没有人制定某些规则而陷入争吵。由于某种原因,他们成熟的思维方式已经演变到完全排斥想象的地步。如果没有人告诉他们到底该做什么,他们就无法应付,无法思考如何摆脱一个他们没有被编程处理的情况。

On the flip side, my eldest daughter in the absence of rules just tries stuff. If it doesn’t work, she tries something else. She learns as she goes, knowing that each failure just gives her one less thing to try next time. Sure, it can lead to frustration and tears, but that doesn’t stop her trying again.

另一方面,在没有规则的情况下,我的大女儿只是尝试一些东西。如果不成功,她就会尝试别的方法。她边走边学,知道每次失败都会让她下次少尝试一件事。当然,这可能导致挫折和眼泪,但这并不能阻止她再次尝试。

Sometimes we need rules and fixed experiences, sometimes we just need to be allowed to try things for ourselves – exercise our imaginations.

有时我们需要规则和固定的经验,有时我们只是需要允许自己尝试一些事情——锻炼我们的想象力。

Remind adults how to play, let them explore and give them a level of freedom and autonomy. I am not suggesting you give them an open sandbox at work and a $6,000,000 budget to blow but give them a chance to experiment and get things wrong.

提醒成年人如何玩耍,让他们探索,给他们一定程度的自由和自主权。我并不是建议你在工作时给他们一个开放的沙箱和600万美元的预算,让他们花掉,而是给他们一个机会去尝试和把事情搞砸。

Let them play! 让他们玩吧

What Are Game Mechanics 什么是游戏机制?

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

When I do play games, I need to understand the rules. It turns out that games folk call these mechanics. Either way, knowing how a game works gives me a great chance of winning. Just wait Andrzej, just wait…

当我玩游戏的时候,我需要了解游戏规则。事实证明,游戏人员称之为机械装置。无论哪种方式,知道一个游戏是如何运作的给了我一个获胜的机会。等等 Andrzej 等等..。

Game mechanics are often spoken about in gamification, but their meaning is often lost, misunderstood or misapplied. I want to take a slightly academic look at what they really are and their relationship with gamification.

游戏机制在游戏化中经常被提及,但是它们的意义经常被丢失、误解或者误用。我想稍微学术性地看看他们到底是什么,以及他们与游戏化的关系。

What Are Game Mechanics?

什么是游戏机制?

To understand why this might be let’s first look at what game mechanics are. The following are quotes taken from various well-known game design books and papers.

为了理解为什么会这样,我们先来看看游戏机制是什么。以下是从各种著名的游戏设计书籍和论文中摘录的语录。

“Core Mechanics represent the essential moment-to-moment activity of players. During a game, core mechanics create patterns of repeated behaviour, the experiential building blocks of play.” Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman: Rules of Play 19

“核心力学代表着运动员必不可少的每时每刻的活动。在游戏中,核心力学创造出重复行为的模式,这是游戏的经验积木。”凯蒂 · 萨伦和埃里克 · 齐默尔曼: 游戏规则19

“Mechanics are the various actions, behaviours and control mechanisms afforded to the player within a game context. The mechanics support overall gameplay dynamics” Robin Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc & Robert Zubek: MDA Framework 21

“机制是在游戏环境中提供给玩家的各种动作、行为和控制机制。这个机制支持整体的游戏动态性”Robin Hunicke,Marc LeBlanc & Robert Zubek: MDA Framework 21

“These are the procedures and rules of your game. Mechanics describe the goal of your game, how players can and cannot try to achieve it, and what happens when they try.” Jesse Schell: The Art of Game Design, A Book of Lenses 18

“这是你们游戏的程序和规则。机制描述了你游戏的目标,玩家如何能够或者不能够尝试去实现它,以及当他们尝试时会发生什么。”杰西 · 谢尔: 游戏设计的艺术,镜头之书18

For our purposes, we can distil the definition down to:

为了我们的目的,我们可以将定义浓缩为:

“A distinct set of rules that dictate the outcome of interactions within the system. They have an input, a process and an output.”

”一套独特的规则,规定系统内部相互作用的结果。它们有输入、流程和输出。”

Further to this, we can also state that dynamics are:

此外,我们还可以指出,动态是:

“The users respond to collections of these mechanics”

”用户响应这些机制的集合”

For example, consider Space Invaders.

例如,考虑太空侵略者。

  • Input: User hits fire

输入: 用户点火

  • Process/rules: Bullet speed, bullet vector, position of enemy

程序/规则: 子弹速度,子弹矢量,敌人的位置

  • Output: Miss; nothing. Hit; explosion, score increase.

输出: 错过; 没有。击中; 爆炸,得分增加。

If we apply the same logic to a simple gamification concept often called a mechanic, Epic Meaning, we can see that there is an issue.

如果我们把同样的逻辑应用到一个简单的游戏化概念上,这个概念通常被称为机制,Epic Meaning,我们可以看到这里有一个问题。

Epic Meaning is something I use in gamification all the time, creating a sense that what you are asking of the user has a purpose or meaning greater than just their current activity.

我在游戏化中一直在使用 Epic Meaning,让用户觉得你对他们的要求比他们当前的活动更有意义。

  • Input: Well, it does not really have one. A person is in the system

输入: 好吧,它并没有一个真正的人。一个人在系统中

  • Process/rules: creating an atmosphere or narrative around meaning. This would break down into many different elements in the system.

过程/规则: 围绕意义创造一种氛围或叙述。这将分解为系统中的许多不同元素。

  • Output: The user feels a sense of purpose and greater meaning

输出: 用户感受到了使命感和更大的意义

It does not really fit. 它不是真的适合

The reality is that you cannot break something like Epic Meaning down like this, so it is not a mechanic. It is the outcome of many different mechanics and interactions within a well-designed system. Look at our Space Invaders example a little more closely and see what else is going on.

事实上,你不能像这样把 Epic Meaning 这样的东西拆开,所以它不是一个机械装置。它是一个设计良好的系统中许多不同机制和相互作用的结果。再仔细看看我们的太空侵略者的例子,看看还有什么其他的事情在发生。

  • “User hits fire”. This requires an interface initially, that takes the user’s inputs and interprets them. This then triggers the creation of a bullet graphic on-screen.

“用户点火”。这首先需要一个接口,接受用户的输入并解释它们。然后触发在屏幕上创建项目符号图形。

  • “Bullet speed, bullet vector, the position of the enemy”. The programmed rules of the game dictate how fast the bullet will travel; the position of the player will determine the exact direction it will take. More programmed rules will tell the game where the enemies are and if the bullet has hit them.

“子弹速度,子弹矢量,敌人的位置”。游戏的程序规则决定了子弹的速度; 玩家的位置决定了子弹的确切方向。更多程序化的规则将告诉游戏中的敌人在哪里,如果子弹击中了他们。

  • “Miss, nothing. Hit: explosion, score increase”. If the bullet misses, obviously nothing happens. If it hits an enemy (which will have several rules defining the hit area), there will be some sort of visual feedback. If the enemy only takes one hit to kill, you get an explosion. If it takes more, you will get some sort of other feedback showing you were successful but have more to do. You will also get more feedback showing you an increase in score. If it is the last enemy, you may also move on to the next level (progression).

“小姐,没什么。命中: 爆炸,得分增加”。如果子弹没打中,显然什么也不会发生。如果它击中一个敌人(这将有几个规则定义击中区域) ,将会有一些视觉反馈。如果敌人只被击中一次,你就会得到一次爆炸。如果需要更多,你会得到一些其他的反馈,表明你是成功的,但有更多的事情要做。你还会得到更多的反馈,显示你的分数有所提高。如果它是最后一个敌人,你也可以移动到下一个级别(进展)。

Is there something like this in gamification? Yes, there are mechanics, but they are hidden deep in the system. As a gamification designer, you are often considering the dynamics and the aesthetics or emotions of the user for whom you are designing, less than the mechanics.

在游戏化中有类似的东西吗?是的,机制是存在的,但它们深深地隐藏在系统中。作为一个游戏化设计师,你经常考虑的是你为其设计的用户的动态、美学或情感,而不是机制。

A very simple example, where we want to increase the number of Likes content on a brand’s Facebook page gets. We will use the old classic: points, badges and leaderboards.

一个非常简单的例子,我们想要增加一个品牌的 Facebook 页面上喜欢的内容的数量。我们将使用古老的经典: 积分,徽章和排行榜。

Clicking the “Like” button gives you points. Points are used as the basis for getting badges and position within a Leaderboard.

点击“喜欢”按钮可以得分。积分是获得徽章和排行榜的基础。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 5 Simple Gamification Mechanics 图5简单的游戏化机制

There are several mechanics involved here.

这里涉及到几个技术问题。

Clicking the button to receive a reward is a mechanic. Changing the balance of the mechanic would then change how many points are given to the user for a click.

点击这个按钮来获得奖励是一个机械的过程。改变机制的平衡将会改变点击给用户的点数。

These points are then processed through two secondary mechanics. The first awards badges/trophies based on how many points the user now has. The second takes the points and works out where the user now sits on a leaderboard, giving them some level of status.

然后通过两个次要力学处理这些点。第一个奖章/奖杯取决于用户现在有多少分。第二种方法根据点数计算出用户现在在排行榜上的位置,给予他们某种程度的地位。

Progress bars, images of badges and leaderboards are just visual aids to monitor feedback, not game mechanics.

进度条、徽章图片和排行榜只是监控反馈的视觉辅助工具,而不是游戏机制。

Considering Gamification

考虑游戏化

A popular framework within game design is the MDA framework, mentioned earlier. MDA stands for Mechanics, Dynamics and Aesthetics. Whilst designed specifically for games, the MDA framework can still be of use in gamification. Below is a slight expansion that I have found helpful, starting at the system and ending at the user.

前面提到的 MDA 框架是游戏设计中的一个流行框架。MDA 代表力学、动力学和美学。虽然是专门为游戏设计的,但是 MDA 框架仍然可以用于游戏化。下面是一个我觉得很有帮助的轻微扩展,从系统开始到用户结束。

图示

描述已自动生成Mechanics 机械学: A set of rules that define what can be done in the system. These are defined by the designer. : 一组规则,定义系统中可以做什么。这些规则由设计人员定义

Schedules: Rules that define how and when certain events happen in the system, such as how many points lead to the next level, when badges are given, needing to have X & Y to get Z etc.

时间表: 定义系统中某些事件发生的方式和时间的规则,比如多少点数可以通向下一级,什么时候给徽章,需要有 x & y 才能得到 z 等等。

Dynamics: How the mechanics and the user act together in real-time. Mostly out of the designer’s control and can lead to unexpected/emergent outcomes.

动态: 机制和用户如何在实时中一起行动。大多数情况下,设计师无法控制,可能会导致意想不到的或紧急的结果。

Feedback: Representation of the results from actions taken in the system. Points, badges, progress bars, messages.

反馈: 表示系统中所采取行动的结果。点数、徽章、进度条、信息。

Tokens: Virtual items. Rewards, collectables and even points are all tokens.

代币: 虚拟物品。奖励、收藏品、甚至点数都是代币。

Interactions: Points of contact between the user and the system, such as a mouse click.

交互: 用户和系统之间的接触点,如鼠标点击。

Aesthetics: The emotional response of the user to the system. Joy, fear, frustration etc.

美学: 用户对系统的情感反应。喜悦,恐惧,沮丧等等。

Taking a common gamification example, how could these be used to describe a hashtag-based competition, tweeting a hashtag to the most people?

以一个常见的游戏化例子为例,如何用这些来描述一个基于 # 标签的竞争,在 twitter 上向大多数人发布 # 标签?

  • Mechanics: Calculation of user tweet and retweet totals.

机制: 计算用户 tweet 和转发总数。

  • Schedules: After 10 retweets of the hashtag, the user gets a badge. Final win condition.

时间表: 转发10次井号标签后,用户将获得一个徽章。最终获胜的条件。

  • Dynamics: Some users may spam their networks if there are no explicit rules preventing them, i.e. the “game” allows it.

动态: 如果没有明确的规则来阻止,一些用户可能会发送垃圾邮件,例如“游戏”允许这样做。

  • Feedback: Users are sent an email to thank them. They are also given points, badges and a position on a leaderboard.

反馈: 用户会收到一封电子邮件表示感谢。他们还会得到积分、徽章和排行榜上的位置。

  • Tokens: The user is given redeemable points.

令牌: 用户被给予可兑换积分。

  • Interactions: The user creates a tweet with the correct hashtag and then sends it.

交互: 用户创建一个带有正确 # 标签的 tweet,然后发送它。

  • Aesthetics: Some users will enjoy being on the leaderboard. Others may be frustrated by how other users decide to play and how fair the system seems.

美学: 一些用户会喜欢在排行榜上。其他人可能会因为其他用户的决定和系统的公平性而感到沮丧。

Obviously, there is a lot more going in, but you can see the basics there and why it is so hard to talk about real mechanics in gamification. I have not even spoken about the fact we need to consider motivation of the user to do something. Many of the things that are spoken about as mechanics are really motivations or drives!

显然,还有更多的内容,但是你可以看到基本的东西,以及为什么在游戏化中很难谈到真正的技巧。我甚至还没有谈到我们需要考虑用户做某事的动机这一事实。作为机械师谈论的许多事情实际上是动机或驱动力!

What is Fun? 什么是乐趣?

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

What you find fun, I may not – are you into swinging from the trees and eating bananas with your feet?

你觉得什么有趣,我可能不——你喜欢在树上荡秋千,喜欢用脚吃香蕉吗?

Fun

有趣

According to the dictionary, fun is “Enjoyment, amusement, or light-hearted pleasure” 22. To you or me though, fun can have lots of meanings. It could be watching your children play in the garden, reading a book, playing games or just walking in the park. Fun is completely subjective and is different for us all.

根据字典的解释,有趣是“享受,娱乐,或者轻松愉悦”。但是对于你或者我来说,娱乐可以有很多意义。可以是看你的孩子在花园里玩耍,读书,玩游戏,或者仅仅是在公园里散步。乐趣是完全主观的,对我们所有人来说都是不同的。

The reason fun is sitting here after game mechanics is because of its relationship to the MDA framework. Marc LeBlanc talks about Eight Kinds of Fun 23 and their relation to aesthetics or the emotional response to the interaction of the player with the game mechanics.

Fun 之所以在游戏机制之后出现在这里,是因为它与 MDA 框架的关系。马克 · 勒布朗讲述了《八种乐趣23》以及它们与美学或者玩家与游戏机制互动时的情感反应之间的关系。

Eight Kinds of Fun

八种乐趣

Sensation 感觉
Game as sense-pleasure 游戏作为感觉-快乐

Fellowship 团契
Game as social framework 作为社会框架的游戏

Fantasy 幻想
Game as make-believe 虚构的游戏

Discovery 发现
Game as uncharted territory 游戏是未知的领域

Narrative 叙事
Game as an unfolding story 游戏作为一个展开的故事

Expression 表情
Game as soapbox 作为临时演说的游戏

Challenge 挑战
Game as an obstacle course 作为障碍物的游戏

Submission 提交
Game as mindless pastime 游戏作为无意识的消遣

Nicole Lazzaro has one of my favourite views on fun – the 4 Keys 2 Fun. More than just labels, this describes how users experience fun and how to design games to enhance that.

妮可拉扎罗有一个我最喜欢的乐趣观点-4键2乐趣。不仅仅是标签,它还描述了用户如何体验乐趣,以及如何设计游戏来增强这种体验。

Nicole Lazzaro’s 4 Keys 2 Fun

4 Keys 2 Fun

People Fun (Friendship) 人与人之间的友谊

Amusement from competition and cooperation 竞争与合作的娱乐

Easy Fun (Novelty) 易趣(新奇事物)

Curiosity from exploration, role play, and creativity

好奇心来自探索,角色扮演和创造力

Hard Fun (Challenge) 硬趣(挑战)

Fiero, the epic win, from achieving a difficult goal

菲罗,史诗般的胜利,从实现一个艰难的目标

Serious Fun (Meaning) 严肃趣味(意义)

Excitement from changing the player and their world

改变玩家和他们的世界带来的兴奋

Of course, I have my own version of what fun is and means. A small survey I conducted highlighted 21 experiences that people described as fun, split into the five groups of fun.

当然,对于什么是乐趣,什么是乐趣,我有自己的看法。我做的一个小调查强调了21种被人们描述为有趣的经历,分为5组。

Achievement Fun

成就乐趣

Curiosity 好奇心
Wanting to know what is in the box, what happens next, what is around the corner. 想知道盒子里有什么,接下来会发生什么,角落里会有什么

Learning 学习
Gaining knowledge, learning new skills – mastery. 获取知识,学习新的技能-掌握

Problem Solving 解决问题

Puzzles, use of problem-solving (specifically) to overcome challenges.

谜题,利用解决问题(特别是)来克服挑战。

Challenge 挑战
Overcoming obstacles. Attaining a sense of achievement. 克服障碍,获得成就感

 

Free Spirited Fun

自由奔放的乐趣

Exploration 探索
Deliberately looking around and testing the boundaries. 故意环顾四周,测试界限

Discovery 发现
Finding new or interesting things, deliberately or not. 发现新的或有趣的东西,不管是有意还是无意

Surprise 惊喜吧
The joy of the unexpected. 意想不到的喜悦

Creativity 创造力
Building, inventing, creating new stuff like music or art. 创造,发明,创造新的东西,比如音乐或者艺术

Social Fun

社交乐趣

Family 家庭
Joy from your relatives. Love. 来自亲人的欢乐,爱

Collaboration 合作
Working with others on a common goal. 为共同的目标与他人一起工作

Fellowship 团契
Relatedness. Being with others 关系,与他人相处.

Competition 竞争
You vs. the world. 你对抗全世界

Altruism 利他主义
Selfless acts towards others, sense of greater purpose. 对他人无私的行为,更大的使命感

   

Facilitated, Personal Fun

便利的,个人的乐趣

Narrative 叙事
Stories and plot lines. 故事和情节

Progression 进展
The feeling that you are moving towards a goal. 你正朝着一个目标前进的感觉

Fantasy 幻想
Make believe, such as worlds created by books, film or imagination. 虚构的,虚构的由书籍、电影或想象创造的世界

Immersion 沉浸
Believing in a fantasy world totally and losing yourself to it. 完全相信一个幻想的世界,然后迷失在其中

Un-Facilitated, Personal Fun

未经协助的个人娱乐

Humour 幽默
Different for everyone, but jokes, funny stories and situations. 每个人都不一样,但是笑话,有趣的故事和情景

Sensation 感觉
Joy in physical sensation. Smell, activity, sport, touch etc. 身体上的快乐,嗅觉,活动,运动,触觉等等

Schadenfreude 幸灾乐祸
Pleasure in the suffering of others. 以别人的痛苦为乐

Flow 流动
As described by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, losing your sense of self in an activity. 正如 Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi 所描述的,在一项活动中失去自我意识

As you can see, you can look at fun in many ways. In my view, gamification is not about making things more fun. Fun can certainly be part of a solution, but that is not its key purpose.

正如你所看到的,你可以从很多方面来看待乐趣。在我看来,游戏化并不是让事情变得更有趣。乐趣当然可以是解决方案的一部分,但这不是它的主要目的。

That said, understanding that what you find fun others may find embarrassing or annoying, is key to you designing experiences that more people are likely to engage with.

也就是说,理解你觉得有趣的事情可能会让别人觉得尴尬或者烦人,这是你设计更多人可能会参与的体验的关键。

 

What is Game Thinking 什么是游戏思维?

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 Like many, my Master used to use gamification as an umbrella term for all game-based solutions. Then, thinking he was clever, he came up with Game Thinking as an alternative catch-all. 像许多人一样,我的主人过去常常把游戏化作为所有基于游戏的解决方案的总称。后来,他觉得自己很聪明,于是想出了“游戏思维”这个万能的替代方案

Gamification is often used as a catch-all for games-based solutions. In theory, this is not a problem, but it can confuse people as to what gamification is. That is why Game Thinking or Game Based Solutions is such an important concept in how I personally view gamification and other game-based solutions. I define Game Thinking in the following way;

对于基于游戏的解决方案,游戏化常常被用作一个包罗万象的解决方案。从理论上讲,这不是一个问题,但是它可以让人们迷惑什么是游戏化。这就是为什么在我个人看待游戏化和其他基于游戏的解决方案时,游戏思维或基于游戏的解决方案是一个如此重要的概念。我以下面的方式定义了博弈思维;

“The use of games and game-like approaches to solve problems and create better experiences.”

“利用游戏和类似游戏的方法来解决问题,创造更好的体验。”

Those problems could be “how do we engage a new audience” or “how do we help people get to the next stage of this learning”. Game Thinking contains four main categories: Gamification, Game Inspired/Playful Design, Serious Games and Games.

这些问题可能是“我们如何吸引新的受众”或“我们如何帮助人们进入这种学习的下一阶段”。游戏思维包括四个主要类别: 游戏化,游戏启发/游戏设计,严肃游戏和游戏。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 6 Game Thinking by Intent

图6游戏的意图思考

The categorisations consider the original design intent of the products, whether it was designed to be just for entertainment or for a purpose. Also, the inclusion of gameplay is considered.

这些分类考虑了产品的原始设计意图,无论它是为了娱乐还是为了某种目的而设计的。此外,包括游戏性也被考虑。

For instance, in Figure 6, Serious Games contain gameplay, the “thing” that really makes a game, where pure gamification does not. However, both are created for a primary purpose other than fun or entertainment.

例如,在图6中,严肃游戏包含了游戏可玩性,这个“东西”真正制造了一个游戏,而纯粹的游戏化没有。然而,两者都是为了娱乐以外的主要目的而创造的。

For the sake of clarity, a fifth category can be added to game-based solutions, simulations.

为了清晰起见,第五类可以添加到基于游戏的解决方案,模拟。

Each of these five segments can then be further broken down.

这五个片段中的每一个都可以进一步细分。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 7 Game Thinkin 图7游戏思考g

 

Gamification and Game Thinking in Practice

游戏化与实践中的游戏思维

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 Now that you understand what my Master thinks game thinking is, how about I show you some examples of it in action. He sure as hell won’t bother! 现在你明白了我的主人认为游戏思维是什么,我给你看一些实际的例子如何。他肯定不会来烦我的

Serious Games

严肃游戏

This group includes full games that have been created for reasons other than pure entertainment. Here I split them into four basic types.

这个群体包括完整的游戏,这些游戏是为了纯粹的娱乐以外的目的而创造的。在这里,我把它们分为四种基本类型。

Teaching Games

教学游戏

This is a type of game designed to teach the player something, for example, arithmetic, coding, or zoology, by playing a real game. Unlike a simulation, it does not have to be representative of the real world. For example, Phantomation is a game that teaches the player how to use the animation software Play Sketch. Rather than just showing you the tools or simulating them in a dry way, it has you solving various puzzles that need deeper and deeper understanding of the tool as the game progresses. It plays well as a game in its own right.

这是一种设计用来教玩家一些东西的游戏,例如,算术,编码,或动物学,通过玩一个真实的游戏。与模拟不同,它不必代表真实世界。例如,幻影游戏是一个教会玩家如何使用动画软件 Play Sketch 的游戏。与其仅仅向您展示工具或者以枯燥的方式模拟它们,不如让您解决各种各样的难题,随着游戏的进展,这些难题需要您对工具有更深入和更深入的理解。它本身就是一个很好的游戏。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 8 Phantomation 图8幻影

Game Inspired/Playful Design

游戏启发/好玩设计

This is where no actual elements from games are used, just ideas. For example, user interfaces that mimic those from games, design or artwork that is inspired by games or the way language is used. It can also be the inclusion of “playful” elements. These do not affect the workings of the system but are there just for some fun. You can see a nice example of this on the Toca Boca website.

这是没有实际的元素从游戏被使用,只是想法。例如,模仿游戏、设计或艺术作品的用户界面,这些用户界面的灵感来自游戏或语言的使用方式。它也可以包含“好玩的”元素。它们不会影响系统的运作,但只是为了好玩而存在。你可以在 Toca Boca 网站上看到一个很好的例子。

On their website, they have a novel way to scroll from the bottom of the page back to the top. Rather than the more common arrow to click, there is a balloon. When you click this, it floats from the bottom of the page back to the top, dragging the screen with it. All these concepts have links to games but lack anything that you would consider part of the inner workings of a game (mechanics, dynamics, tokens, etc.)

在他们的网站上,他们有一种新奇的方式从页面底部滚动到页面顶部。这里有一个气球,而不是更常见的单击箭头。当你点击这个按钮时,它会从页面的底部浮动到页面的顶部,用它来拖动屏幕。所有这些概念都与游戏有关,但是缺少任何你认为是游戏内部工作的东西(机制、动态、标记等等)

I look a little more deeply at play and playfulness elsewhere in the book.

我更深入地观察了书中其他地方的玩乐和嬉戏。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 9 www.tocaboca.com 图9 www.tocaboca.com

Meaningful Game/Games for Good

有意义的游戏

This is a group of games that attempts to get across a meaningful message and promote change with that message. An example of this would be Darfur is Dying. This was the result of a competition run by the Reebok Human Rights Foundation and the International Crisis Group 24. The winning game came from five students from the University of Southern California that placed you in the shoes of a displaced Darfurian refugee. It aimed to show the hardships faced by the millions of people displaced by the crisis in Sudan.

这是一组游戏,试图传达一个有意义的信息,并促进与该信息的变化。这方面的一个例子就是达尔富尔正在死亡。这是锐步人权基金会和国际危机24小组举办的竞赛的结果。获胜的游戏来自南加利福尼亚大学的五名学生,他们把你放在一个流离失所的达尔富尔难民的位置上。它旨在显示因苏丹危机而流离失所的数百万人所面临的困难。

Rather than trying to teach you a tool or a method of doing something, this type of game is trying to inform you about ideas that may never have crossed your mind in a way that is engaging and meaningful.

这种类型的游戏不是试图教你一种工具或者一种做事的方法,而是试图告诉你一些可能从来没有以一种吸引人和有意义的方式出现在你脑海中的想法。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 10 Darfur is Dying 图10达尔富尔正在死亡

Purposeful Game

有目的的游戏

The idea of a purposeful game is that playing it has some sort of real-world outcome. Three examples of this come to mind: FoldItTilt World and Genes in Space from Cancer Research UK. FoldIt is a popular game often cited by gamification advocates. Developed by the University of Washington, FoldIt is a puzzle game that sets the player the task of predicting the structure of proteins by folding them.

一个有目的的游戏的想法是,玩它有一些现实世界的结果。我想到了三个例子: FoldIt,Tilt World 和来自英国癌症研究中心的太空基因。FoldIt 是游戏化倡导者经常引用的一款流行游戏。FoldIt 是由华盛顿大学开发的一款益智游戏,玩家可以通过折叠蛋白质来预测蛋白质的结构。

Understanding how proteins fold can help lead to the development of cures for all sorts of diseases, including HIV and cancer. Humans are good at solving puzzles; so good that in just ten days, gamers had solved one enzymatic structure, potentially a key to curing AIDS, that scientists had been trying to unravel for more than a decade via more traditional methods 25.

了解蛋白质如何折叠有助于开发各种疾病的治疗方法,包括艾滋病毒和癌症。人类擅长解决谜题; 十天之内,玩家就解开了一种酶的结构,这种结构可能是治愈艾滋病的关键,科学家们十多年来一直试图通过更传统的方法来解开谜团。

卡通人物

低可信度描述已自动生成

Figure 11 Genes in Space

图11空间中的基因

Tilt World, by Nicole Lazzaro, is a mobile game that puts you in the body of the last tadpole – Flip.

由 Nicole Lazzaro 设计的 Tilt World 是一款手机游戏,让你体验最后一次蝌蚪翻转。

You must eat carbon from the air in an attempt to restore the sunshine to Flip’s home. Although this may seem like a meaningful game, in that it is trying to promote a message about ecology, the unique thing about Tilt World is that playing it leads to the planting of actual trees in Madagascar 26. As a final example, Genes in Space is a space shooter game that uses gameplay to map genomes to help the fight against cancer in the real world! 27

你必须从空气中吸收碳,才能让 Flip 的家恢复阳光。尽管这看起来像是一个有意义的游戏,因为它试图宣传一个关于生态的信息,Tilt World 的独特之处在于,玩这个游戏可以在马达加斯加种植真正的树木。最后一个例子,基因在太空是一个太空射击游戏,使用游戏地图基因组,以帮助对抗癌症的现实世界!图27

A Quick Summary

快速总结

  • Teaching Game: Teaches using real games and gameplay.

教学游戏: 教使用真实的游戏和游戏性。

  • Meaningful Game: Uses gameplay to promote a meaningful message to the player.

有意义的游戏: 利用游戏性向玩家传递有意义的信息。

  • Purposeful Game: Uses games to create direct real-world outcomes.

有目的的游戏: 利用游戏创造直接的现实世界的结果。

Gamification

游戏化

As explained earlier, gamification is about taking ideas and elements from games and using them in non-game contexts. I split this into two basic types. Intrinsic deep and Extrinsic trivial. This is very similar to Karl Kapp’s two types of gamification 28, where he talks about structural and content gamification.

如前所述,游戏化是从游戏中获取想法和元素,并在非游戏环境中使用它们。我把它分为两种基本类型。内在深与外在平凡。这与卡尔 · 卡普的两种类型的游戏化28非常相似,他在28中谈到了结构化和内容游戏化。

Trivial gamification is what most people are used to, where game elements are bolted on to a system. You will often see points, badges, progress bars, and the like.

微不足道的游戏化是大多数人习惯的,游戏元素被固定到一个系统中。你会经常看到积分、徽章、进度条等等。

图形用户界面, 应用程序

描述已自动生成

Figure 12 Gamified UK with Trivial Layer Gamification

图12微不足道的层游戏化英国

Figure 12 shows my own website, with a simple Trivial Layer implementation of gamification. It has points, badges, leaderboards and more.

图12显示了我自己的网站,其中有一个简单的 Trivial Layer 游戏化实现。它有积分、徽章、排行榜等等。

Intrinsic deep gamification is more about using motivation and behavioural design to engage users.

内在深度游戏化更多的是使用动机和行为设计来吸引用户。

A good example of this can be seen in question and answer sites such as Quora or Stack Exchange, where points and the like are used to reinforce particular behaviours but do not form the basis for people contributing.

这方面的一个很好的例子可以在问答网站上看到,比如 Quora 或者 Stack Exchange,在这些网站上,点数和类似的东西被用来强化某些特定的行为,但是并不构成人们贡献的基础。

Simulation

模拟

A simulation is a virtual representation of something from the real world, such as a flight simulator. Often this can be hard to distinguish from a game or a serious game, as they look very game like. The difference is that a simulation does not usually need gameplay elements in order to function and fulfil its designed intent. It exists to allow users to practice an activity in a safe environment.

模拟是来自真实世界的东西的实际代表,比如飞行模拟器。这通常很难与一个游戏或一个严肃的游戏区分开来,因为它们看起来非常像游戏。不同之处在于,模拟通常不需要游戏性元素来实现其设计意图。它的存在是为了允许用户在一个安全的环境中进行活动。

Simulations are not a new phenomenon either, with military simulations in one form or another used since the start of organised warfare. The birth of modern wargames and simulations has been credited to Herr von Reisswitz, Prussian War Counsellor and his war game Kriegsspiel in 1812 29. This was a military game/simulation that each regiment was encouraged to play on a regular basis to test out strategies and tactics without having to risk troops.

模拟也不是一个新现象,自有组织的战争开始以来,军事模拟就以这样或那样的形式应用。现代战争游戏和模拟的诞生要归功于普鲁士战争参赞赫尔 · 冯 · 雷斯维茨和他在1812年至1829年间的战争游戏《战争游戏》。这是一个军事游戏/模拟,鼓励每个团定期进行,以测试战略和战术,而不必冒险部队。

Simulations can take many forms; physical such as board games or role-playing, digital like computer-based flight simulations or business simulations or blended where you have a bit of both as in augmented reality.

模拟可以采取多种形式; 物理模拟,如棋盘游戏或角色扮演,数字模拟,如基于计算机的飞行模拟或商业模拟,或混合,你有一点两者在扩增实境。

Games/Play/Toys

游戏/游戏/玩具

Games, play and toys are explained in more detail in the next chapter, however, it is useful to see a short summary of them here.

游戏,游戏和玩具将在下一章有更详细的解释,然而,在这里看到它们的简短摘要是有用的。

  • Play is free form and has no extrinsically imposed goals. It is undertaken for fun or joy.

游戏是自由的形式,没有外在的目标,它是为了好玩或者快乐而进行的。

  • Games add defined goals and rules to play, like challenges.

游戏增加了明确的目标和游戏规则,比如挑战。

  • Toys are objects that can be used in play or games.

玩具是可以在游戏或游戏中使用的物品。

Concentrating on games, I categorise them into three basic types.

我把注意力集中在游戏上,把它们分为三种基本类型。

Entertainment

娱乐

Entertainment is what most people would associate with games. Call of DutyCivilization or World of Warcraft for example. They are designed with the intention of entertaining people in some way, with no deliberate higher purpose.

娱乐是大多数人会联想到游戏的东西。例如,使命召唤,文明或者魔兽世界。它们的设计目的是以某种方式娱乐人们,没有刻意的更高目的。

Art

艺术

Art is subjective. I would consider a game such as Proteus more art than game where some would not. Proteus is a game with little to no gameplay but creates a beautiful and thoughtful experience. It is entertainment but done in a way that evokes different kinds of emotions to those of standard games.

艺术是主观的。我认为像普罗秋斯这样的游戏更多的是艺术而不是游戏。普罗秋斯是一个游戏,几乎没有游戏性,但创造了一个美丽和周到的经验。这是一种娱乐,但是以一种与标准游戏不同的方式唤起了不同的情感。

Adver-Games

These are proper games created to advertise something. The game is a real game, but at some stage, it is being used to try to sell you something. An example I enjoyed playing, was 这些都是为了宣传某些东西而设计的合适的游戏。这个游戏是一个真正的游戏,但是在某个阶段,它被用来向你推销一些东西。我喜欢玩的一个例子是Elfridges, an old-school platformer in the style of 一个老派的游戏平台Super Mario 超级马里奥, designed to raise awareness of Selfridges and its various locations ,旨在提高人们对塞尔福里奇百货公司及其各种地点的认识30.

The Game Thinking Spectrum

游戏思维谱

With all of that said and highlighting all the differences between various game-based solutions, a good gamification practitioner will look at the problem they are given and decide what the best solution is for their client based on their needs, not on the semantics surrounding the difference between gamification and serious games. It is all a spectrum that flows and can be mixed and matched as needed.

所有这些都强调了各种基于游戏的解决方案之间的差异,一个优秀的游戏化从业者会根据他们的需求,而不是围绕游戏化和严肃游戏之间的语义差异,来看待他们遇到的问题,并决定什么是对他们的客户来说最好的解决方案。这是一个流动的频谱,可以根据需要进行混合和匹配。

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Figure 13 The Game Thinking Spectrum

图13游戏思维谱

Aesthetic: At this end of the spectrum, the solutions share the look and at times the feel of games, they are more “game-like” than they are game.

美学: 在这个范围的末端,解决方案共享游戏的外观,有时感觉,他们更像“游戏”比他们是游戏。

Structure: Around the mid-point, the solution will not only have the look of a game, they will also share structural comparisons. Challenges, narratives, scoring systems, RPG elements, feedback, progress etc.

结构: 围绕中点,解决方案不仅会有一个游戏的外观,他们还会共享结构比较。挑战,叙述,评分系统,RPG 元素,反馈,进步等。

Gameplay: As we move to the gameplay end of the spectrum, the solutions are more game than game-like. They have true gameplay and all the trappings one would expect with a true game, whether it is for more serious purposes or for pure entertainment.

游戏性: 当我们移动到游戏性的范围,解决方案更多的是游戏而不是类似游戏。他们拥有真正的游戏体验和所有真正的游戏应有的装饰,不管是为了更严肃的目的还是纯粹的娱乐。

 

Ethical Considerations of 伦理方面的考虑
Gamification 游戏化

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

How ethical is it to keep and train a monkey? Well, if that sort of question interests, then this chapter is for you. It discusses the ethics of gamification and offers some ways to think about them.

饲养和训练一只猴子有多道德?好吧,如果你对这类问题感兴趣,那么这一章就是为你而写的。本文讨论了游戏化的伦理问题,并提供了一些思考方法。

卡通人物

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Gamification, the use of game elements in non-game contexts, has had its fair share of critics over the years. People have labelled it everything from shamification to exploitationware, fearing its use as nothing more than manipulation or exploitation.  This has led people to question its ethical and moral implications. 游戏化,即在非游戏环境中使用游戏元素,多年来一直受到公平的批评。人们给它贴上了各种各样的标签,从蒙骗到剥削软件,他们担心它的使用只不过是操纵或剥削。这使得人们质疑它的伦理和道德意义

Gamification is often viewed through a near dystopian lens. From Jesse Schell’s 2010 DICE talk on the invasion of games 31 to Ernest Cline’s Ready Player One and to Charlie Brooker’s Black Mirror, it seems that the only outcome for a world where gamification is prevalent is a negative one.

游戏化通常是通过一个近乎反乌托邦的镜头来观察的。从 Jesse Schell 2010年关于游戏入侵的 DICE 演讲,到 Ernest Cline 的 Ready Player One,再到 Charlie Brooker 的 Black Mirror,似乎游戏化盛行的世界的唯一结果是消极的。

This presents several questions when we are considering designing gamification-based solutions. First, what are ethics and how do we evaluate solutions against them? The next crucial question is what are the responsibilities of the designer? Should they be held accountable for the way people choose to use their system or does their responsibility start and end with the design?

当我们考虑设计基于游戏化的解决方案时,这提出了几个问题。首先,什么是道德规范,我们如何评估针对它们的解决方案?下一个关键问题是设计师的职责是什么?他们应该对人们选择使用他们系统的方式负责,还是他们的责任从设计开始到结束?

This has been discussed in academic literature a few times; here I wish to look at the ethics of gamification from a layman’s perspective.

这在学术文献中已经被讨论过几次; 在这里,我希望从一个外行人的角度来看游戏化的伦理。

Defining Ethics

定义道德

The use of the correct terminology is important to understanding one’s perspective in an argument for or against something. With that in mind, it is of use to clearly define what is meant by ethics.

在支持或反对某事的论据中,正确术语的使用对于理解一个人的观点很重要。考虑到这一点,明确界定什么是伦理学是有用的。

As noted by ethics researchers Richard Paul and Linder Elder, many confuse ethics with social, religious or political norms rather than treating ethics as a standalone set of principles. Instead, Paul and Elder consider ethics as “[a] set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behaviour helps or harms sentient creatures” 32.

伦理学研究人员理查德 · 保罗和林德 · 埃尔德指出,许多人将伦理学与社会、宗教或政治规范混为一谈,而不是将伦理学作为一套独立的原则来对待。相反,保罗和埃尔德认为伦理学是“一套概念和原则,指导我们确定哪些行为帮助或伤害了有情众生”。

At a basic level, ethics are external rules or guidelines where morals are more personal and inherent to an individual. It may be ethically acceptable to consume meat, but to a vegetarian, it may be morally unacceptable. For the purpose of this discussion and with relation to the design of gamification and gamified systems, ethics will be defined as “a set of principles to facilitate the design of solutions that, on balance, promote desirable outcomes for the users.”

在基本层面上,道德是外在的规则或指导方针,在这些规则或指导方针下,道德更加个人化,是个人所固有的。食用肉类在伦理上是可以接受的,但是对于素食者来说,这在道德上是不可接受的。为了本次讨论的目的,以及关于游戏化和游戏化系统的设计,道德将被定义为”一套原则,以促进设计解决方案,总的来说,促进用户取得理想的结果”

The emphasis here is on the intention of the gamification designer to create systems that help rather than bring harm to others, though defining harm is potentially subjective. When you build things, you can often become so attached to them that you become blind to potential criticism or dangers. Therefore, it is useful to have frameworks and ethical guidelines, preventing the potential inherent dangers of personal morals, or lack thereof, over-ruling ethics.

这里的重点是游戏化设计者的意图,即创建一个帮助而不是给他人带来伤害的系统,虽然定义伤害可能是主观的。当你建造东西的时候,你常常会变得过于依赖它们,以至于对潜在的批评和危险视而不见。因此,建立有效的道德框架和道德准则,防止个人道德或道德缺失的潜在固有危险,超越统治的道德。

Ethics Framework

道德操守框架

To discuss the ethics of a system, we need to have a framework to decide what constitutes help and harm to others. Based on our definition of ethics, I have proposed the following simple framework for discussion. 

为了讨论一个系统的道德规范,我们需要一个框架来决定什么构成了对他人的帮助和伤害。基于我们对道德的定义,我提出了以下简单的讨论框架。

  • Does the system offer a choice?

这个系统提供了选择吗?

  • What is the intention of the designer?

设计师的目的是什么?

  • What are the potential positive and negative outcomes of being in the system?

在这个系统中,潜在的积极和消极的结果是什么?

  • Are the beneficial outcomes weighted towards the needs or desires of the user or the designer?

有益的结果是否偏重于用户或设计者的需求或愿望?

Discussion by Example

以实例进行讨论

A social credit system has been proposed in China, to be rolled out and mandatory by 2020, called Sesame Credit. The premise of Sesame Credit is to give every citizen of China a score, based on how “good” a citizen they are. This score is based on many factors, including what the user purchases through Alibaba, the country’s largest online retailer. Technology director of Sesame, Li Yingyun, in an interview with the Chinese magazine Caixin said, “Someone who plays video games for 10 hours a day, for example, would be considered an idle person, and someone who frequently buys diapers would be considered as probably a parent, who on balance is more likely to have a sense of responsibility” 33.

中国已经提出了一个社会信用体系,将在2020年前推出并强制实施,名为芝麻信用。芝麻信用的前提是,根据每个中国公民的“好”程度,给他们打分。这个评分基于很多因素,包括用户通过中国最大的在线零售商阿里巴巴购买的商品。芝麻网的技术总监李颖云在接受中国杂志《财新》采访时说,“比如说,一天玩10个小时电子游戏的人会被认为是一个无所事事的人,而经常买尿布的人可能会被认为是父母,总的来说更有责任感。”。

This scenario was extrapolated out in a video from Extra Credit titled Propaganda Games: Sesame Credit, where this social credit score could be based on what people do on social media, what they purchase and potentially more crucially, who they are friends with.

这种情况是从一个名为《宣传游戏: 芝麻信用》的视频中推断出来的,这个社交信用评分可以基于人们在社交媒体上做了什么,他们购买了什么,更重要的是,他们的朋友是谁。

The answer to the first questions here is twofold. Initially, Sesame Credit will be voluntary. However, by 2020, it would be mandatory. Initially participants would have free will and be able to choose to join or not, but that choice will eventually be taken away. It could also be argued that making it voluntary initially will create a FOMO (fear of missing out) effect, with early adopters imposing social pressure on those who have not already joined.

这里第一个问题的答案是双重的。最初,芝麻信贷将是自愿的。然而,到2020年,这将是强制性的。最初参与者有自由意志,可以选择加入或不加入,但这种选择最终将被取消。也有人认为,最初的自愿行为会产生 FOMO (害怕错过)效应,早期使用者会对那些还没有加入的人施加社会压力。

The intention of the system is more complex to analyse. On the surface, this is like any other credit score, informative to the owner of the score. Knowing their score and what can improve it is of benefit to the user, especially if higher scores could potentially lead to preferential treatment in the future. With this in mind, it could be argued that the intention of the system and indeed the potential outcomes for the user are both positive and good. Going back to our definition, on balance the outcomes are desirable.

这个系统的意图分析起来比较复杂。从表面上看,这就像任何其他信用评分一样,为评分的所有者提供信息。了解他们的得分以及什么可以改进它对用户是有益的,特别是如果得分更高可能导致未来的优惠待遇。考虑到这一点,可以认为系统的意图和实际上对用户的潜在结果都是积极和良好的。回到我们的定义,总的来说,结果是可取的。

However, when you consider how the system could be used to rate your relationships and potentially monitor all your online life, things start to twist away from benefiting the user and become much more focused on benefiting the designer. Whilst participation in the system may not directly harm the user, the potential outcomes could have a net negative effect on them. For instance, a low social score could lead to the loss of friends and the loss of services.

然而,当你考虑如何使用这个系统来评估你的人际关系和潜在地监控你的在线生活时,事情开始从使用者受益开始扭曲,变得更加专注于使设计师受益。虽然参与系统可能不会直接伤害用户,但潜在的结果可能对他们产生净负面影响。例如,低的社交分数可能会导致失去朋友和服务。

This does not consider the cultural differences in China compared to other countries and it is worth noting that for some, the idea of a social credit system is positive. But the potential outcomes for the user are less than ideal and arguably the intention of the design is not to benefit the users but to benefit the state. Therefore, it fails our definition of being ethical.

这并没有考虑到中国与其他国家的文化差异,值得注意的是,对一些人来说,社会信用体系的想法是积极的。但是对于用户来说,潜在的结果并不理想,可以说设计的目的不是为了使用户受益,而是为了国家受益。因此,它不符合我们对道德的定义。

The second example for discussion is the game Pokémon Go. Whilst this is not a gamified system, it does share traits with gamification and opens interesting questions about the intention of the design.

讨论的第二个例子是游戏《精灵宝可梦 Go 》。虽然这并不是一个游戏化的系统,但它确实与游戏化有着共同的特点,并引发了关于设计意图的有趣问题。

Pokémon Go is a mixed reality game that sees players using their mobile devices exploring the real world to capture virtual Pokémon. By physically moving to different locations, players can find Pokémon and attempt to capture them.

精灵宝可梦 Go 是一款混合现实的游戏,玩家通过移动设备探索现实世界,捕捉虚拟的精灵宝可梦。通过身体移动到不同的地点,玩家可以找到精灵,并尝试捕捉他们。

However, the game has not been without controversy. Indeed, there were several major issues early on, including deaths related to playing the game. These incidents occurred when players were so desperate to capture Pokémon that they behaved in very unsafe ways; in one fatal case, a player broke into a person’s house. This led to online discussions and articles condemning the designers for not having more forethought about the unintended consequences of playing Pokémon Go. The main argument raised was: should the designers take responsibility for the actions of the players, if the players put themselves in harm’s way to play the game?

然而,这场比赛并非没有争议。事实上,早期有几个主要问题,包括与玩游戏有关的死亡。这些事件发生时,玩家是如此迫切地想要抓住小精灵,以至于他们的行为非常不安全; 在一个致命的案例中,一个玩家闯入了一个人的房子。这导致了网上的讨论和文章谴责设计师没有更多地考虑到玩精灵宝可梦 Go 的意外后果。提出的主要论点是: 如果玩家在游戏中将自己置于危险的境地,设计者是否应该为玩家的行为负责?

To consider the ethics of the game, we need to go back to our definition and framework. First, we must ask the question, does the game offer players a choice.

考虑到游戏的道德规范,我们需要回到我们的定义和框架。首先,我们必须提出这样一个问题,这个游戏是否给玩家提供了一个选择。

The answer is simple, yes. They do not have to download the game and play. Again, as with the social credit example, there is a fear of missing out and potential social pressure applied by early adopters. However, there is no danger of the game ever being made mandatory by the state!

答案很简单,是的。他们不需要下载游戏然后玩。同样,与社会信用的例子一样,人们担心错过早期使用者施加的潜在社会压力。然而,这个游戏从来没有被国家强制执行的危险!

Next, what was the intention of the designer when creating the game? In this instance, the answer is clear, to give joy to the players. They wanted to create a game that would get people physically involved in a new type of game. Of course, they also wanted to make money. This is not a negative point—it is the right of anyone creating new products to want to make a profit from them.

接下来,设计师创作游戏的初衷是什么?在这种情况下,答案是明确的,给球员的快乐。他们想创造一个游戏,让人们身体参与到一种新型的游戏中。当然,他们也想赚钱。这不是一个负面的观点ーー任何创造新产品的人都有权利希望从中获利。

When considering the benefits and negative outcomes of being in the game, we can’t ignore the fact that serious harm has befallen certain players. However, the majority have found the game to be enjoyable and have faced no negative effects of playing. So, on balance, the positive outcomes of being in the game far outweigh the potential negatives. This also is true of the benefits to the player vs that of the designer. The game was made to give joy to players and on balance, it seems that this is what it has done. The designers have made money, but not to the detriment of the player’s enjoyment.

当考虑到参与游戏的好处和消极后果时,我们不能忽视这样一个事实,即某些玩家已经遭受了严重的伤害。然而,大多数人发现游戏是令人愉快的,并且没有面临玩游戏的负面影响。因此,总的来说,参与游戏的积极结果远远超过潜在的消极影响。这对玩家和设计师的利益也是如此。这个游戏是为了给玩家带来快乐而设计的,总的来说,似乎这就是它所做的。设计师们赚了钱,但并没有损害玩家的乐趣。

From an ethical standpoint, Pokémon Go does not seem to break our rules. The game was designed with good intent and players, on balance, benefit in the way they desire. However, there is a moral concern here. Whilst the negative events that transpired were unintended, they still happened. So, whilst there is no ethical issue (based on our definition), the designers did face a moral quandary. To help limit the danger people faced playing the game, they created a series of messages that reminded the player not to do dangerous things whilst playing, such as not looking where they are going. Early in the game’s life, there was also the question of where Pokestops and gyms where placed. For instance, was it acceptable to have a children’s nursery marked on the map as a Pokestop as it could draw large numbers of people to the spot, not something that is desirable? Again, the developers took action, releasing tools to allow people to request the removal of Pokestops and gyms 34.

从道德的角度来看,《精灵宝可梦 Go 》似乎并没有打破我们的规则。这款游戏的设计初衷是好的,总的来说,玩家可以按照自己的愿望获得利益。然而,这里有一个道德问题。虽然发生的负面事件是意外的,但它们仍然发生了。因此,虽然没有道德问题(基于我们的定义) ,但设计师们确实面临着一个道德困境。为了帮助人们减少玩游戏时面临的危险,他们创建了一系列的信息,提醒玩家在玩游戏时不要做危险的事情,比如不要看他们要去的地方。在游戏的早期,还有一个问题,Pokestops 和健身房的位置。例如,在地图上标注一个儿童托儿所是否可以接受,因为它可以吸引大量的人来到这个地方,而不是让人满意的地方?同样,开发者采取了行动,发布了工具,允许人们要求移除 Pokestops 和 gyms 34。

Pokémon Go represents an interesting crossroads in the argument around the ethics of designing systems. Whilst it did nothing deliberately wrong, it certainly had many unintended issues that could be considered the lack of forethought on the designer’s part. Whether or not it is right to hold them responsible for this is a question of morality rather than ethics.

精灵宝可梦 Go 代表了围绕设计系统伦理的争论中一个有趣的十字路口。虽然它没有故意做错什么,但它肯定有许多意想不到的问题,可以被认为是设计师方面缺乏深思熟虑。让他们为此负责是否正确,这是一个道德问题,而不是伦理问题。

It is obvious that there are ethical concerns when it comes to the use of gamification. Whilst defining the term is of use, it helps to have a more expansive code of ethics for designers to consider when creating gamified solutions. There have been several created, notably by Zichermann and myself, although some feel that they do not always go as far as needed focussing more on the enterprise rather than the individual. However, the key elements that come out are a need for transparency and honesty with the user about the intentions of the system and not creating systems that deliberately trick users into behaviours that could cause them harm.

很明显,当涉及到游戏化的使用时,存在着伦理问题。虽然定义这个术语是有用的,它有助于有一个更广泛的道德规范,设计师在创建游戏化的解决方案时考虑。虽然有些人认为他们并不总是能够达到需要的程度,更多地关注企业而不是个人。然而,关键要素是需要透明度和诚实的用户对系统的意图和不创造系统,故意欺骗用户的行为,可能会造成伤害。

This is the main salient point about ethics and gamification. Gamification becomes unethical when the designer uses the psychology of players to manipulate them to do things that are not in their best interest. The use of random rewards to create addictive, gambling-like experiences that eventually lead certain users to be unable to exercise free will. Obfuscated systems that encourage users to divulge information about themselves for reasons that are not obviously stated initially. Systems that deliberately exploit those who are more vulnerable in society such as the sick or the very young.

这是关于道德和游戏化的主要观点。当设计师利用玩家的心理来操纵他们去做一些不符合他们最佳利益的事情时,游戏化就变得不道德了。使用随机奖励来创造上瘾的,类似赌博的体验,最终导致某些用户无法行使自由意志。模糊的系统,鼓励用户泄露信息,关于自己的原因,没有明显的最初说明。蓄意剥削社会中更易受伤害的人,例如病人或幼童的制度。

It is very important to keep in mind that all these instances and indeed all instances of ethical concerns with gamification are not the fault of gamification as a concept, but rather the designer. Like a hammer, gamification is a tool. A hammer can be used to create beautiful works of art and to build houses when used by craftsmen who understand its uses and its limitations. However, a hammer can also be used to break objects and cause great damage when used by those with less creative intentions. This does not make the hammer ethical or unethical, it is just a tool. The ethics must be associated with the intentions of the person holding the hammer.

记住这一点非常重要,所有这些事例以及所有关于游戏化的伦理问题都不是游戏化这个概念的错,而是设计者的错。就像锤子一样,游戏化也是一种工具。一把锤子可以用来创造美丽的艺术作品和建造房屋,只要工匠们了解它的用途和局限性。然而,当那些缺乏创造性意图的人使用锤子时,锤子也可以用来破坏物体并造成巨大的损害。这并不使锤子道德或不道德,它只是一个工具。道德规范必须与拿锤子的人的意图联系起来。

The same is true of gamification. The onus must be on the designer to use the techniques available to them in gamification in an ethical manner.

游戏化也是如此。设计师必须承担责任,以合乎道德的方式在游戏化中使用他们可用的技术。

 

Originally Published in 最初发表于年XRDS: Crossroads, The ACM Magazine for Students Volume 24 十字路口》 ,《美国计算机协会学生杂志》第24卷
Issue 1, Fall 2017 Pages 56-59 doi: 10.1145/3123756 第一期,2017年秋季。页56-59 doi: 10.1145/3123756 35

The Science of Gamification Gamification 的科学

徽标

中度可信度描述已自动生成

 

What Motivates Us? 是什么激励着我们?

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

There are many levels of motivation, from survival to rewards. I have my own motivations and they may well be different to yours… they are certainly different to my Master’s as he will soon discover.

激励有很多层次,从生存到奖励。我有我自己的动机,它们可能和你的不一样… 它们肯定和我的师父的不一样,他很快就会发现。

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成

Understanding what motivates people is a key concept in your gamification designs if you want them to succeed.

如果你想让人们成功,理解是什么激励着他们是你游戏化设计中的一个关键概念。

A lot of talk in gamification revolves around the relative values of extrinsic motivation, such as rewards and intrinsic motivation. It often seems like a conversation about good and evil! The truth is that both have their place, you just must tweak the balance and application of them.

在游戏化中,很多讨论都围绕着外在动机的相对价值,比如奖励和内在动机。它经常看起来像是一个关于善与恶的对话!事实上,两者都有自己的位置,你必须调整它们的平衡和应用。

There are many theories out there about what motivates us and how. For the purposes of gamification, I break these down into three distinct layers. These layers can help us to understand how and why certain types of gamification may or may not work.

关于是什么激励了我们以及如何激励我们,有很多理论。出于游戏化的目的,我把它们分为三个不同的层次。这些层次可以帮助我们理解某些类型的游戏化是如何工作的,以及为什么不能工作。

Three Layers of Motivation

三层动机

图形用户界面

描述已自动生成

Figure 14 The Three Layers of Motivation

图14动机的三个层面

 

Base

基地

It is hard to speak about motivation without mentioning Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 36 as this is one of the best known of the models that describe human needs and motivations. Outlined in 1943, Maslow describes five levels of human needs: physiological, safety, belonging, esteem and self-actualisation. Although it has been criticised 37, it is a useful starting point for use when we consider why people behave in the way they do and how we can use that knowledge to create better experiences for them.

如果不提及马斯洛的需求层次理论36,很难说动机是什么,因为这是描述人类需求和动机的最著名的模型之一。1943年,马斯洛概述了人类需求的五个层次: 生理需求、安全需求、归属感需求、自尊需求和自我实现需求。尽管它已经被批评了37,但当我们考虑为什么人们会这样做,以及我们如何利用这些知识为他们创造更好的体验时,它是一个有用的起点。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 15 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

图15马斯洛的需求层次理论

Physiological needs include air, water, sleep and procreation. Safety is more about securing yourself and your family. Belonging relates to our need to be with others: fellowship, family, sexual intimacy etc.

生理需要包括空气、水、睡眠和生殖。安全更多的是保护你自己和你的家人。归属感与我们需要与他人相处有关: 友谊、家庭、性亲密等等。

Esteem covers less primal needs, achievement, respect, confidence and the like. With self-actualisation, we see our needs to solve problems, be creative and be good people.

自尊包括不那么原始的需求、成就、尊重、自信等等。通过自我实现,我们看到我们需要解决问题,变得有创造力,成为好人。

Within the three layers I have proposed in Figure 14, the Base layer considers physiological and safety needs.

在我在图14中提出的三个层中,基本层考虑生理和安全需求。

Let’s think about a job for a moment. Most go to work for one reason, to earn money. Money leads to security. It provides you shelter, it keeps your family safe, it provides food for you all. Before money, jobs, and the like, this was all much more primal. You secured your family by physically protecting them. You hunted for food and you built shelters. For most, this is now taken care of by earning money. We do not need to hunt for food or build huts for shelter; we now buy all those things.

让我们想一想一个工作。大多数人去工作只有一个目的—- 挣钱。金钱带来安全感。它为你提供庇护,保护你的家庭安全,为你们提供食物。在金钱、工作和诸如此类的事情发生之前,这一切都要原始得多。你通过身体上的保护来保护你的家人。你们打猎寻找食物,你们建造庇护所。对于大多数人来说,现在通过赚钱来解决这个问题。我们不需要打猎寻找食物,也不需要建造棚屋作为住所; 我们现在购买所有这些东西。

If we look at Maslow’s hierarchy of needs again, we see the most core motivations for humans are physiological needs and safety/security.

如果我们再次审视马斯洛的需求层次理论,我们会发现人类最核心的动机是生理需求和安全/保障。

Having just shown that now, money is what provides the majority of security for most; it makes sense that money is now one of our most core needs. I am not talking about being rich – rather having enough to guarantee physiological needs and safety.

刚刚证明了,金钱是大多数人的主要安全保障; 现在,金钱是我们最核心的需求之一,这是有道理的。我说的不是富有,而是有足够的钱来保证生理需求和安全。

Many people enjoy their job, which is great. Nevertheless, even those who say, “I would work here if they didn’t pay me” are generally talking rubbish. You need to survive and in our world; work and money give you that opportunity.

许多人喜欢他们的工作,这是伟大的。然而,即使那些说“如果他们不付我工资,我就在这里工作”的人,也是在胡说八道。你需要在我们的世界里生存,工作和金钱给了你这个机会。

Emotional / Intrinsic

情绪/内在

Once our base needs and motivations are satisfied, we can focus on the other more emotional motivations. I describe these as our need for relatedness, autonomy, mastery and purpose (RAMP).

一旦我们的基本需求和动机得到满足,我们就可以关注其他更多的情感动机。我把这些描述为我们对联系、自主、掌握和目标(RAMP)的需要。

I will go into much more detail in the next section. These needs are referred to as intrinsic motivations and are much more important to our feeling of satisfaction than pure rewards can be.

我将在下一节更详细地讨论。这些需求被称为内在动机,比单纯的奖励对我们的满足感更重要。

Trivial / Extrinsic

琐碎/非固有

A lot of gamification efforts sit in this area – often referred to as PBL gamification (Points, Badges and Leaderboards) 38. They have their place and I will be explaining a lot more about them as we go along.

许多游戏化的努力都集中在这个领域——通常被称为 PBL 游戏化(积分、徽章和排行榜)38。他们有他们自己的位置,我会在我们继续的过程中解释更多关于他们的事情。

For now, it is enough to understand that these types of incentives are only truly effective when the first two layers of motivation and needs are satisfied.

就目前而言,只要理解这些类型的激励只有在前两层动机和需求得到满足时才真正有效就足够了。

It’s always more complex than it looks!

事情总是比看起来复杂

As linear as this all seems, satisfy the bottom layer, then the middle, then use gamification, it isn’t that simple. Short term engagement using extrinsic gamification can work fine, whatever the other needs may be, but it will have no sustainability. Also, what one person finds extrinsically motivating, others may find much more intrinsic.

这些看起来都是线性的,满足底层,然后是中层,然后使用游戏化—- 事情没那么简单。无论其他需求是什么,使用外在游戏化的短期参与可以很好地工作,但它将没有可持续性。另外,一个人寻求外在动力,其他人则可能寻求更多的内在动力。

The other key one to look at is Money in the base layer and Excess Bonuses being in the trivial/extrinsic section. Money is a base need these days, it is what helps us to guarantee security. Having more than we need is also not a terrible thing, money can’t buy you happiness, but it can buy a lot of stuff that can go towards making you happy! However, there is a point where money is no longer the biggest interest. In a job you hate, you don’t tend to leave because of the money, it is other factors. If you are then offered more money, it rarely makes you change your mind as the rest of the environment is the same! If you have enough money to be at least comfortable, then excess bonuses are not going to provide long-term motivation to do good work.

另一个要看的关键是金钱在基层和超额奖金是在琐碎的/外部部分。金钱是这些日子的基本需要,它帮助我们保证安全。拥有比我们需要的更多也不是一件可怕的事情—- 金钱不能买来幸福,但是它可以买到很多东西,这些东西可以让你快乐!然而,有一个点,钱不再是最大的利益。在你讨厌的工作中,你不会因为钱而离开,而是其他因素。如果你得到了更多的钱,它很少会让你改变主意,因为其他的环境都是一样的!如果你有足够的钱让自己至少感到舒适,那么过多的奖金不会给你提供做好工作的长期动力。

Excess bonuses can also lead to terrible behaviour, with overjustification effect being a massive issue. If you are just working for the money, quality can be affected as can decision making. Did you make the decision because it was best for the customer, or because it helped you get your bonus?

过度的奖金也会导致可怕的行为,过度的理由效应是一个巨大的问题。如果你只是为了钱而工作,那么质量和决策都会受到影响。你做出这个决定是因为这对客户最好,还是因为它帮助你获得奖金?

Using this in Gamification

在 Gamification 使用这种方法

The question becomes, how can we benefit from this knowledge in gamification? The answer is, by understanding what people need. Forget motivation for a moment and look at base needs. If a person feels they cannot support themselves and guarantee the security and safety of their family – no amount of emotional or trivial motivation is going to motivate them, at least not in the way you are probably hoping it will.

现在的问题是,我们如何从游戏化中获益?答案是,通过理解人们需要什么。暂时忘记动机,看看基本需求。如果一个人觉得自己不能养活自己,不能保证家庭的安全——再多的情感或微不足道的动机都不能激励他们,至少不是你所希望的那样。

 

This is obviously focused on Enterprise gamification. It is not the job of an advertising company using gamification to sell a product, to ensure the base needs of their target audience. This is the job of the individual and their employer. However, if their target audience does not feel they have their base needs satisfied by work or other means, it is unlikely that the advertising will work on them, gamified or otherwise!

这显然是专注于企业游戏化。使用游戏化来销售产品,确保目标受众的基本需求,这不是广告公司的工作。这是个人及其雇主的工作。然而,如果他们的目标受众觉得他们的基本需求没有通过工作或其他方式得到满足,这是不可能的,广告将对他们起作用,游戏化或其他!

In the enterprise, be aware that if your employees are struggling financially and it is perceived that you could improve this, gamification could seriously backfire. The money you spend on that could be seen to be spent on improving the lives of the employees at a base level rather than a trivial one!

在企业中,要注意,如果你的员工在财务上遇到困难,而且他们认为你可以改进这一点,游戏化可能会产生严重的事与愿违的后果。你花在这上面的钱可以看作是用来改善基层员工的生活,而不是一个微不足道的!

 

The Intrinsic Motivation RAMP

内在动机 RAMP

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

When creating your gamified solutions, it is important to find the intrinsic motivations that will keep your users engaged. Mastery is my main motivation, not that certain people would notice.

在创建游戏化的解决方案时,找到让用户参与的内在动机是很重要的。精通是我的主要动机,而不是某些人会注意到的。

卡通人物

描述已自动生成

I have mentioned intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards a few times now, so it is about time to take a closer look at what they are and why an understanding of different types of motivation is so important.

我已经多次提到内在动机和外在奖励,所以现在是时候仔细研究它们是什么,以及为什么理解不同类型的动机是如此重要。

Intrinsic motivation is defined by researchers Edward Deci and Richard Ryan as “the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence” 39. They identify three intrinsic motivators: competence (or mastery), autonomy and relatedness which forms the core of their Self-Determination Theory 40.

内在动机被研究人员爱德华 · 德西和理查德 · 赖安定义为“为了内在满足而做的活动,而不是为了某些可分离的结果”。他们确定了3个内在的激励因素: 能力(或精通) ,自主性和相关性,这些构成了他们 self-determination theory 的核心。

In contrast, extrinsic motivation is “a construct that pertains whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome”

相比之下,外在动机是“为了达到某种可分离的结果而进行某种活动时所产生的一种结构”

Daniel Pink’s Drive 41, popular in gamification circles, suggests a slightly different set of intrinsic motivators. He proposes autonomy, mastery and purpose.

丹尼尔 · 平克的 Drive 41,在游戏化圈子里很流行,暗示了一套稍微不同的内在动机。他提出了自主性、掌控性和目的性。

Comparing Self-Determination Theory and Drive

Self-determination theory 和驾驶的比较

Self-Determination Theory

Drive 开车

Competence 能力

Mastery 精通

Autonomy 自主权

Autonomy 自主权

Relatedness 相关性

 
 

Purpose 目的

As you can see, the only real difference is that Pink drops relatedness for purpose, with mastery meaning the same here as competence.

正如你所看到的,唯一真正的区别是 Pink 为了达到目的而放弃了关联性,掌握意味着同样的能力。

Combining these four motivators, we get what I term the Intrinsic RAMP – Relatedness, Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose.

把这四种动力结合起来,我们就得到了我所说的内在 RAMP ——相关性、自主性、掌握性和目的性。

Intrinsic RAMP definitions

内在 RAMP 定义

Motivation 动机

Description 描述

Relatedness 相关性

The desire to be connected to others.

与他人联系的欲望。

Autonomy 自主权

The need to feel agency, independence or freedom.

需要感受能动性、独立性或自由。

Mastery 精通

The desire to learn new skills and develop expertise in them.

渴望学习新的技能并在其中发展专业知识。

Purpose 目的

A feeling of greater meaning or a desire to be altruistic.

利他主义,利他主义一种更有意义的感觉或对利他主义的渴望。

Intrinsic motivations are not perceived as a reward, either physical or virtual, but give people a feeling of satisfaction, sociability and self-determination. Every good gamified system will have one or more of these intrinsic motivators present in some form or another. This is not to say that extrinsic rewards are of no value, far from it. They can be a great way to reinforce and support motivation, as we will see later.

内在动机不是一种奖励,无论是身体上的还是虚拟的,而是给人一种满足感、社交能力和自决的感觉。每一个好的游戏化系统都会有一个或多个这样的内在动机以某种形式出现。这并不是说外在的奖励毫无价值,远非如此。正如我们将在后面看到的,它们可以成为强化和支持动机的一个很好的方式。

Relatedness

相关性

Relatedness is the desire to be connected to others. In gamification, social status and connections that come from communities satisfy this desire. I feel this is the glue that holds gamification together and elevates a gamified system above being just another gimmick. After the badges become boring due to habituation and the points are meaningless – having a community that enjoys their interactions with each other becomes the key to retaining their engagement and loyalty.

相关性是一种渴望与他人联系的欲望。在游戏化中,来自社区的社会地位和关系满足了这种欲望。我觉得这是把游戏化凝聚在一起的胶水,把游戏化系统提升到高于另一个噱头的地位。在这些徽章因为习惯而变得乏味之后,这些分数就失去了意义——拥有一个享受彼此互动的社区成为保持他们参与度和忠诚度的关键。

The sense of belonging and connectedness to other people is, in my mind, underrated. When you feel that you are part of a community and create relationships – that sense of community is much stronger than any digital reward you might get from posting an article to twitter!

在我看来,归属感和与他人的联系被低估了。当你觉得自己是社区的一部分,并且建立了关系——这种社区意识比你在 twitter 上发布文章所得到的任何数字奖励都要强烈得多!

Within the enterprise, this can be found in internal social networks as well as in the office. I mentioned social status as well. This may seem like an external force and to a certain extent, it is. However, status can be a very personal thing. Feeling that others value you, your input or your experience is very motivating. You do not need a leaderboard to feel that, you need to have connections with people and some way to get those people talking, sharing, and giving each other feedback.

在企业内部,这可以在内部社交网络和办公室中找到。我也提到了社会地位。这可能看起来像是一种外力,在某种程度上,确实如此。然而,地位可以是非常私人的东西。感觉到别人重视你,你的投入或你的经验是非常有激励作用的。你不需要一个排行榜就能感觉到,你需要与人们建立联系,以某种方式让那些人交谈,分享,并给予彼此反馈。

Autonomy

自主权

Autonomy can have multiple meanings, but the core concept that I consider in gamification is that of freedom or agency. Most people do not like to feel that they are being controlled or stifled. Without some level of freedom, you will struggle to cultivate innovation and creativity.

自主可以有多种含义,但是我认为游戏化的核心概念是自由或者代理。大多数人不喜欢他们被控制或被压抑的感觉。没有一定程度的自由,你将很难培养创新和创造力。

As previously mentioned, Google recognised this when they implemented their 80/20 rule. Their employees were encouraged to spend 20% of their time working on their own projects. This led to some of their most important innovations, Gmail and Google News being two well-known graduates of this way of thinking!

正如前面提到的,谷歌在实施80/20规则时意识到了这一点。他们鼓励员工把20% 的时间花在自己的项目上。这导致了他们一些最重要的创新,Gmail 和谷歌新闻是这种思维方式的两个著名毕业生!

You could also look at this in terms of meaningful choices. When teaching a new topic or idea, are you giving the user the freedom to choose how they learn for instance? Are they able to choose the path that best suits their needs or learning style or are they forced to do it one way or no way?

你也可以从有意义的选择的角度来看待这个问题。例如,当你教授一个新的主题或想法时,你是否给用户选择如何学习的自由?他们是否能够选择最适合自己需要或学习风格的道路,或者他们是否被迫单方面做这件事?

Giving users a level of autonomy will help them to feel that they have at least some control of what they are doing. For example, in an enterprise situation, it is the difference between micromanagement and leaving your employees to get on with their job. It shows them that they are trusted and can not only give you happier people but may also surface some great innovation.

给用户一定程度的自主权将帮助他们感觉到他们至少对自己正在做的事情有一些控制权。例如,在企业情况下,微观管理和让员工继续工作之间的区别就在于此。这表明他们是值得信任的,不仅能给你带来更快乐的人,而且还可能表现出一些伟大的创新。

Mastery

精通

Mastery is the process of becoming skilled at an activity and eventually mastering it – becoming an expert. It is important to us that we feel our skill is increasing in direct proportion to the level of challenge. If this is perfectly balanced, it is often referred to as Flow, discussed later.

精通是在一项活动中变得熟练并最终掌握它的过程——成为一个专家。对我们来说,重要的是,我们感到我们的技能正在成正比的挑战水平。如果这是完美的平衡,它通常被称为流,后面会讨论。

The path to mastery is an important concept seen in most if not all video games. These days, rather than being given a manual to read, you are guided through training levels that spoon-feed you everything that you need to know to master the game. This early phase is referred to as on-boarding.

通往精通的道路是大多数视频游戏(如果不是所有的话)中看到的一个重要概念。如今,你不再需要阅读说明书,而是通过训练水平来学习掌握游戏所需的一切。这个早期阶段称为入职阶段。

The challenge is increased as your level of skill increases. Once you are out of the training levels, this does not cease. The game continues to get harder as you get better at it, but it offers less and less handholding.

挑战随着你技能水平的提高而增加。一旦你脱离了训练水平,这种情况就不会停止。随着你玩得越来越好,这个游戏会越来越难,但是它提供的握手方式却越来越少。

In an enterprise situation, it is important to consider that if you do not continue to challenge employees, they will begin to feel less motivated. In the same way, if you do not encourage them to improve or even change their skills in ways that line up with their own desires, over time you will see de-motivation.

在企业的情况下,重要的是要考虑到,如果你不继续挑战员工,他们会开始感到缺乏动力。同样地,如果你不鼓励他们提高或者甚至改变他们的技能,使之符合他们自己的愿望,随着时间的推移,你会发现他们没有动力。

Purpose

目的

When I speak about purpose in RAMP, I am specifically talking about altruistic purpose. This is the desire to help others in some way 42. This is the type of purpose we are speaking of in the Philanthropist User Type.

当我在 RAMP 中谈到目的时,我特别指的是利他目的。这是以某种方式帮助他人的愿望。这就是我们所说的慈善家用户类型的目的类型。

The other type of purpose is meaningful purpose. This is more a desire to understand the meaning of what you are doing and our significance in the general scheme of things 43. This type of purpose is experienced by all use types, it is not specific to one.

另一种类型的目的是有意义的目的。这更多的是希望了解你所做的事情的意义,以及我们在事情总体计划中的重要性。这种类型的目的是所有使用类型都有体验的,而不是只有一种。

A very well-known example that encompasses both types of purpose is that of Wikipedia. Millions of articles, all given freely by people, for no other reason, than to feel that they may add to a better understanding of the topics 44.

维基百科就是一个非常著名的例子,包含了这两种类型的目的。数以百万计的文章,都是由人们免费提供的,没有别的原因,只是觉得这些文章可以增进对主题的理解。

More altruistic examples would be giving to charity, answering people’s questions on forums like Quora or just opening the door for another person.

更多利他主义的例子包括为慈善机构捐款,在 Quora 等论坛上回答人们的问题,或者仅仅为另一个人打开大门。

In the enterprise, you can implement this in a few ways. The first is giving people the ability to provide meaningful help to others. This links in well with relatedness when you look at internal social networks. Research has shown that altruistic actions can make people feel good about themselves – described often as a warm glow 45.

在企业中,可以通过几种方式实现这一点。首先是赋予人们为他人提供有意义帮助的能力。当你观察内部的社交网络时,这种联系很好地与关联联系在一起。研究表明,利他行为可以使人们自我感觉良好——人们常常把这种行为描述为“温暖的光芒”。

Another option is to give people the opportunity to give to charities from within gamified systems, especially in point collecting style platforms. For example, online quiz Grain of Rice asks players to answer questions. Each correct answer translates into donations of rice to countries suffering from famine.

另一个选择是给人们机会,让他们在游戏化的系统中,尤其是在点收集风格的平台上,向慈善机构捐款。例如,在线问答游戏《米粒》要求玩家回答问题。每一个正确的答案都转化为向遭受饥荒的国家捐赠大米。

So rather than giving users a badge, you should consider giving them the chance to donate to a charity of their choice when they hit certain thresholds.

因此,与其给用户一个徽章,你应该考虑给他们一个机会,当他们达到一定的阈值时,捐赠给他们选择的慈善机构。

Intrinsic motivation is important as it rewards people in a way that has a much deeper and more sustainable effect on people. However, that is not to say that extrinsic rewards are bad, they just need to be used smartly and in combination with intrinsic motivation and other drivers, not on their own. Gamification is all about getting the balance right!

内在动机很重要,因为它以一种对人们有更深刻和更可持续影响的方式回报人们。然而,这并不是说外在奖励是坏的,它们只是需要巧妙地与内在动机和其他驱动因素结合使用,而不是单独使用。游戏化就是要保持平衡!

It is also important to consider that RAMP is not a taxonomy, people are not one or the other, they are a spectrum of all the motivations, and much more! That said, depending on the context, one motivation may be more important to them than another.

同样重要的是要考虑 RAMP 不是一种分类,人们不是一个或另一个,他们是所有动机的光谱,还有更多!也就是说,根据具体情况,一种动机对他们来说可能比另一种更重要。

For example, if generally a person is most interested in relatedness and you put them into an educational setting, at that moment mastery may be the most “active” motivation.

例如,如果一个人通常对人际关系最感兴趣,你把他们放到一个教育环境中,在那一刻掌握可能是最“积极”的动机。

Learning from Games: Battlefield 1

从游戏中学习: 战场1

Playing Battlefield 1 has reminded me how important the motivations I speak about in RAMP really are, but how they can be a little counter-intuitive at first glance.

玩《战场1》提醒了我在 RAMP 中所说的动机是多么的重要,但是它们怎么会在第一眼看上去有点反直觉。

Relatedness, Purpose and Goals

相关性,目的和目标

For instance, it becomes quickly apparent that teamwork is not initially facilitated by social connectedness/relatedness or communication, as you might expect. Rather it is created through the purpose provided by a common set of goals. This is especially true of playing on a public server with strangers!

例如,很快就会发现团队合作并不像你所期望的那样,最初是通过社会联系/关系或沟通来促进的。相反,它是通过一系列共同目标所提供的目的而创造出来的。尤其是在公共服务器上和陌生人一起玩的时候!

Most players on each team want the same basic overarching goal – to win. To achieve this, they have capture control points. This is easier to achieve if you work together. To help you along, when the game starts you can join a squad. Each squad has a leader who can assign tasks. You don’t have to do them but doing so can lead not only to better chances of winning but more experience points.

每支球队的大多数球员都想要同一个基本的总体目标——赢球。为了实现这一点,他们有捕获控制点。如果你们一起工作,这个目标会更容易实现。为了帮助你,当游戏开始时,你可以加入一个小队。每个班都有一个可以分配任务的领导。你不需要这样做,但这样做不仅可以带来更好的获胜机会,而且可以获得更多的经验积分。

This creates a nice granular sense of purpose. First, there is the epic goal of beating the other team. Next, there is the more immediately achievable goal of capturing the next control point. After there are less obvious goals, like keeping your team alive and other players on your side.

这就创造了一个很好的粒状目标感。首先,击败对手是一个史诗般的目标。接下来,有一个更能立即实现的目标,即捕获下一个控制点。在有一些不那么明显的目标之后,比如让你的球队保持活力,让其他球员站在你这边。

Another key to success is choosing complementary character classes. This is not essential but can make a significant difference. 

另一个成功的关键是选择互补的角色类别。这不是必要的,但是可以产生显著的差异。

You can’t rely on just being on the offensive all the time, people need healing and vehicles need repairing. Again, there is nothing forced, but it improves the chances of winning and the rewards that accompany winning. I’ll get back to rewards in a moment, though.

你不能总是依靠进攻,人们需要治疗,车辆需要维修。再次强调,没有什么是被强迫的,但是它提高了获胜的机会和随之而来的奖励。不过,我一会儿就会回到奖励上来。

Of course, the addition of voice communication, text communication and the ability to play with friends all add to the experience and increase the social feel of the game. I spent many hours playing Battlefield online with friends from Gamerdads over the years.

当然,语音通讯、文本通讯以及与朋友玩耍的能力都增加了游戏的体验,增加了游戏的社会感。这些年来,我花了很多时间和来自 Gamerdads 的朋友们玩战地风云Online。

Mastery

精通

Another more obvious motivation is mastery. Practice makes perfect, or so they say. As with most games, Battlefield pushes you to constantly improve. As you play you gain experience points. These are awarded for various actions in the game. Killing enemy players, rescuing teammates, capturing conquest flags, spotting the enemy for others, healing people etc. As you gain experience points, your rank increases. This is a very nice example of continuous contextual performance feedback (CCPF as I will now call it).

另一个更明显的动机是精通。他们说,熟能生巧。和大多数游戏一样,《战场》会不断地推动你进步。当你玩的时候,你会获得经验点数。这些奖励是为了奖励游戏中的各种动作。杀死敌人玩家,拯救队友,夺取征服的旗帜,为他人发现敌人,治疗他人等等。当你获得经验点数时,你的等级就会提高。这是一个非常好的连续上下文性能反馈示例(我现在称之为 CCPF)。

This helps you to understand how you are improving as well as what your key strengths are and can be easily seen at the main game screen. There are badges, but they are harder to earn – making them even more valuable and desirable over time.

这有助于你了解你是如何提高,以及你的关键优势是什么,可以很容易地在主屏幕上看到。虽然有徽章,但它们更难获得——随着时间的推移,这些徽章变得更有价值、更有吸引力。

To help you find a constant challenge, without pushing you too far beyond your current capabilities (expanded on later when discussing Flow), the server you are added to when you start a game is chosen with your current rank in mind. The algorithm tries to balance the teams based on ability so that there is a mix of players. Some a higher rank than you, some the same level as you and others maybe a little lower than you. This means that you are not just dying constantly, but neither are you likely to go totally unchallenged in a game.

为了帮助你找到一个持续的挑战,同时又不会让你超出你现有的能力(在后面讨论 Flow 的时候再详细说明) ,当你开始一个游戏的时候,服务器会根据你现在的排名来选择。该算法试图平衡的基础上能力的球队,以便有一个混合的球员。有些人的级别比你高,有些人的级别和你一样,有些人可能比你低一点。这意味着你不仅仅是不断地死去,而且你也不可能在游戏中完全不受挑战。

Autonomy

自主权

That’s Mastery and Purpose, both in terms of meaning and altruism (helping teammates, driving vehicles etc) fulfilled and even a little bit of Relatedness. But what of Autonomy? Well, each map is open, so you can roam wherever you like. You don’t have to do anything that I have spoken about if you don’t want to. There are always those who will play the game as a lone wolf, sniping from a distance or just charging into a fight and creating chaos (Disruptors). There no set path to follow and no set penalties for not following orders. There is some social pressure to at least work towards the same goals as the team and of course the potential desire to win, but that’s about it. You really are a free agent.

这就是掌握和目标,无论是在意义和利他主义(帮助队友,驾驶车辆等)实现,甚至一点点关联。但是,自主性又如何呢?每张地图都是开放的,所以你可以在任何你想去的地方漫游。如果你不愿意,你可以不做我说过的任何事。总是有那些玩游戏作为一个孤独的狼,狙击从远处或只是冲进一场战斗和创造混乱(破坏者)。没有规定的路径可以遵循,也没有规定对不遵守命令的惩罚。有一些社会压力,至少工作相同的目标作为团队,当然,潜在的渴望赢,但这是关于它。你真的是一个自由球员。

Rewards – not always Evil!

奖励——并不总是邪恶的

It’s not all about pure intrinsic motivation, though, Battlefield 1 makes good use of rewards as well. The more you play, the more experience points you get, the more currency you get, and the more unlockable options become available.

这并不完全是纯粹的内在动机,战场1也很好地利用了奖励。你玩的越多,你得到的经验点越多,你得到的货币越多,并且有更多的可解锁选项可用。

What I have always found interesting about this sort of system is that it seems a bit back to front when you think about it. The better you get, the better the weapons you can have. They become more accurate, more powerful, faster etc. Now, surely, these would make it much easier for new players to win games?

我一直觉得这种系统有趣的地方在于,当你思考它的时候,它似乎有点前后颠倒。你做得越好,你就能拥有越好的武器。它们变得更精确,更有力,更快等等。现在,这些肯定会让新玩家更容易赢得比赛吧?

But that’s the point. If new players could just come straight into the game with an elite weapon, they would never have to earn anything or learn the ropes. Giving new players too high an advantage from the outset will make them less appreciative of skill development and challenge.

但这就是问题所在。如果新玩家可以直接带着精英武器进入游戏,他们将不需要赚取任何东西或者学习诀窍。从一开始就给予新玩家太高的优势会让他们对技能发展和挑战不那么感激。

Everything you unlock in Battlefield 1 makes you feel good because you worked hard to earn it. You also have the freedom to choose what you do and don’t unlock. So, you may have got to the correct rank or completed specific tasks that allow you to open certain weapons, but you don’t have to buy them. This adds to the feeling that you are playing the game how you want to play it.

你在《战地1》中解锁的所有东西都会让你感觉良好,因为你努力工作才得到它。你也可以自由选择你要做什么,不要解锁。所以,你可能有正确的等级或完成特定的任务,让你打开某些武器,但你不必购买他们。这会让你觉得你在按照自己想要的方式玩这个游戏。

There is much more here, random rewards, side missions and customisation to name a few, but what I have outlined are the things that have had me most engaged.

这里还有更多的东西,随机奖励,副任务和定制等等,但我所概述的是最吸引我的东西。

Again, this all hammers home the message that you need to cater for intrinsic motivations in your systems as well as the more obvious extrinsic ones. It also reinforces that rewards need to be earned not just given away, which I will expand on later.

再一次,这些都向我们传达了这样的信息: 你需要迎合你系统中的内在动机,以及更明显的外在动机。它也强调了奖励需要通过努力而不是白白送出,这一点我将在后面详细说明。

 

What is Flow and Why is it 什么是流动,为什么是流动
Important? 重要吗?

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 When I train, often time seems to stop and there is nothing be me and the universe. This is the sense of Flow that my Master rattles on about all the time. Apparently, it is important in some way… 当我训练的时候,时间好像停止了,没有什么是我和宇宙。这就是我的主人一直喋喋不休谈论的流动的感觉。显然,这在某种程度上很重要… ..

Flow and Happy Users

心流和快乐的用户

Flow is something you will hear a lot of in gamification and games for that matter. In gamification, it can help explain how to balance the user journey towards mastery.

你会在游戏化和游戏中听到很多关于流的东西。在游戏化中,它可以帮助解释如何平衡用户通往掌握的旅程。

Flow is a theory that was developed by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi after seeing that under certain conditions, people’s experiences became optimal. This is to say that they became totally focused on the job at hand. This can be seen in many artists who just “get into the grove” as they work, or athletes who are “in the zone” as they compete. Time stops, nothing else matters and when they finally come out of it, they have no concept of how long they have been doing what they were doing.

心流理论是由 Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi 提出的,他发现在特定条件下,人们的体验变得最佳。这就是说,他们变得完全专注于手头的工作。这可以从许多艺术家的工作中看出来,他们只是“走进树林”,或者运动员在比赛中“进入区域”。时间停止了,其他的一切都不重要了,当他们最终走出来的时候,他们不知道他们已经做了多久了。

He identified some key factors that could lead to Flow: 46

他确定了一些可能导致流动的关键因素: 46

  1. One must be involved in an activity with a clear set of goals and progress. This adds direction and structure to the task.

一个人必须参与一项活动,有一套明确的目标和进展。这给任务增加了方向和结构。

  1. The task must have clear and immediate feedback. This helps the person negotiate any changing demands and allows them to adjust their performance to maintain the Flow state.

任务必须有清晰和即时的反馈。这有助于人员协商任何变化的需求,并允许他们调整性能以保持 Flow 状态。

  1. One must have a good balance between the perceived challenges of the task and their own perceived skills. One must have confidence in one’s ability to complete the task.

一个人必须在任务的感知挑战和他们自己的感知技能之间有一个良好的平衡。一个人必须对自己完成任务的能力有信心。

The short version is that a person’s perceived skill needs to match the perceived challenge, with clear goals and feedback. Well, as we will see – gamification is all about goals and feedback!

简而言之,一个人的感知技能需要与感知的挑战相匹配,有明确的目标和反馈。好吧,正如我们将要看到的——游戏化就是目标和反馈!

The model that Csikszentmihalyi suggested has more states than Flow – Flow is just the optimal state. If the challenge is low and the skill needed is low, then the user will be in a state of apathy. As the balance changes, the person can experience states of boredom, anxiety/frustration, worry and more.

Csikszentmihalyi 建议的模型比 Flow 有更多的状态,这正是最优状态。如果挑战是低的,所需的技能是低的,那么用户将处于无动于衷的状态。随着平衡的改变,人们会经历无聊、焦虑/沮丧、担忧等等。

The full model is shown in Figure 16. Most people spend much of their time somewhere in the middle.

完整的模型如图16所示。大多数人的大部分时间都花在中间的某个地方。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 16 Flow: Challenge vs Skill

图16流程: 挑战 vs 技能

When we look at games, a variation of this model is often used – popularised in Jesse Schell’s book The Art of Game Design.

当我们研究游戏时,这种模式的一个变种经常被使用——在 Jesse Schell 的《游戏设计的艺术》一书中广为流传。

In this simplified version, he concentrates on just three basic states: boredom, frustration and Flow.

在这个简化版本中,他只关注三种基本状态: 无聊、沮丧和心流。

During gameplay, it is usually preferable to keep a user within the “Flow Channel”, the state between boredom and frustration. The closer the game takes a person to high challenge vs. high skill – the higher the state of Flow.

在游戏过程中,通常最好让玩家保持在“流动通道”中,处于无聊和沮丧之间的状态。游戏越接近一个人的高挑战对高技能-更高的状态流。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 17 A Simplified View of Flow

图17流的简化视图

It is important to explain that this is a snapshot in time, a representation of a person’s state in a single moment.

重要的是要解释,这是一个时间的快照,一个人的状态在一个单一的时刻的表现。

When designing solutions, you must consider that people need to find the challenge evolves over time, in line with their skill. Increase the challenge before they are ready, and they will become frustrated. Keep the challenge constantly the same, they will master the skill and get bored, as with a game like 在设计解决方案时,你必须考虑到人们需要根据自己的技能,随着时间的推移发现挑战。在他们准备好之前增加挑战,他们会变得沮丧。让挑战保持不变—- 他们会掌握这项技能,然后感到无聊,就像玩游戏一样Tic Tac Toe. 井字棋

Take an admin job in a large company as an example. The employee starts on day one and with the relevant skills, but they probably need to learn about the company and learn how to use the skills in the way that is expected of them. If this happens too fast, their skills will not match the level of challenge and they will become frustrated.

以一家大公司的行政工作为例。员工从第一天就开始学习相关技能,但他们可能需要了解公司,学习如何按照期望的方式使用这些技能。如果这种情况发生得太快,他们的技能将无法与挑战水平相匹配,他们将变得沮丧。

We will look at the User Journey later in the book, however in gamification terms we would say that the on-boarding phase here is poor. Instead, you would create a system or process that enrolled the employee in a way that helped them understand how the company worked and how they integrated with it. This would be at a pace that was not too fast and not too slow.

我们将在本书的后面讨论用户之旅,然而在游戏化方面,我们会说这里的入门阶段很差。相反,你应该创建一个系统或流程,以帮助员工了解公司是如何运作的,以及他们是如何与公司整合的。这个速度既不会太快,也不会太慢。

For me, the ideal employee enrolment contains a few steps. The first is face to face. Truly, nothing can beat meeting people face to face to get to know them. So, start with a half day physical meetup that helps everyone become comfortable with each other. In that meeting, include core essentials that help them get started on their job. Where to find the timesheet software, how to get to the intranet, who their HR manager is, that sort of thing. After that, the rest can be handled with online courses and carefully planned drip-feeding of key information over the first days and weeks of their employment.

对我来说,理想的员工注册包括几个步骤。第一种是面对面。说真的,没有什么能比面对面地认识他们更好的了。所以,从半天的身体接触开始,这样可以帮助大家彼此适应。在那次会议上,包括帮助他们开始工作的核心要素。在哪里可以找到时间表软件,如何进入内部网,他们的人力资源经理是谁,诸如此类的事情。在那之后,剩下的问题可以通过在线课程来解决,并且在他们就职后的头几天和几周里,精心计划地逐步传递关键信息。

 

No one wants two days of Death by PowerPoint!

没有人想要被 PowerPoint 害死两天!

图片包含 徽标

描述已自动生成

Figure 18 Death by Powerpoint 图18死亡通过 Powerpoint

The challenge needs to keep going and increase as they learn new skills. There will often come a point where there is no way for their skills to increase and the challenge is no longer acceptable. Here there are two clear choices, move on or start to share that mastery with others.

当他们学习新技能的时候,挑战需要不断地增加。总有一天,他们的技能无法提高,这种挑战也不再可以接受。这里有两个明确的选择,继续前进或者开始与他人分享这种掌握。

What often happens at work when someone gets to this phase, is they are left to become bored and in turn, disenfranchised. This is when you lose employees. Never be afraid to allow them to move to new challenges if that is what it takes to keep them.

当人们进入这个阶段时,工作中经常发生的是,他们变得无聊,反过来,被剥夺了权利。这就是你失去员工的时候。永远不要害怕让他们去迎接新的挑战,如果这是保持他们所需要的。

The lesson is, always make sure the skill and challenge levels are increasing in line with each other. 教训是,总是要确保技能和挑战水平相互一致地提高

Grinding to Mastery and Flow

向掌握和流动的磨练

In game design and gamification design, we are also used to the idea that you “zig-zag” the user’s skill with the challenge levels to keep users engaged and in the Flow “zone”.

在游戏设计和游戏化设计中,我们也习惯了这样的想法,即你“之字形”的用户的技能与挑战水平,以保持用户参与和流动“区域”。

手机屏幕截图

描述已自动生成

Figure 19 Ideal Flow 图19理想流程

As we journey towards mastery, we go through several phases of activity in various combinations.

当我们走向掌握之旅时,我们以不同的组合经历了活动的几个阶段。

Phases

阶段

  • Grinding: Low skill, low challenge work that is used to gain experience and increase skills.

研磨: 低技能,低挑战性的工作,用来获得经验和提高技能。

  • Levelling: As skills increase relative to the current challenge, the challenge levels increase.

等级: 随着技能相对于当前挑战的增加,挑战等级也会增加。

  • Mastering: The point where the user’s skill levels match or surpass the challenge offered.

掌握: 用户的技能水平达到或超过所提供的挑战的点。

  • Testing: Where the challenge is distinctly higher than the relative skill of the user. In games, this is often a Boss Battle. The user needs to “up their game”.

测试: 挑战明显高于用户的相对技能。在游戏中,这通常是一场老板之战。用户需要“升级他们的游戏”。

图片包含 表格

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Figure 20 4 Phases 图204阶段

The Cycles

周期

Grinding 研磨
The user has a low level of skill and is asked to complete simple challenges. As their skills increase and they start to “level up”, eventually they will master that level of challenge. At this point, the challenge is increased, and they start grinding again. The challenge is now harder than when they started, but their skill has increased a relative amount, effectively resetting everything back to low skill / low challenge. 用户的技能水平较低,需要完成简单的挑战。随着他们技能的提高,他们开始“升级”,最终他们将掌握这一级别的挑战。在这一点上,挑战增加了,他们又开始研磨。现在的挑战比他们刚开始的时候更难,但是他们的技能相对增加了一些,有效地将一切重新设置回低技能/低挑战的状态

图表, 折线图

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Figure 21 Grinding Cycle 图21磨削周期

Challenging 富有挑战性
In this phase or cycle, there is an extra level of challenge in the form of a test. Mastering the current level of challenge leads to a display of skill against a higher challenge. In a game, you would see this as a boss battle. The player takes all they have learned and collected through grinding and applies it in a single much harder challenge. Usually, this will be a large spike in the challenge, but the reward for success would be greater! 在这个阶段或周期中,有一个额外的挑战级别,即测试的形式。掌握当前的挑战水平可以让你在面对更高的挑战时展示技能。在游戏中,你会看到这是一场老板之战。玩家把他们通过研磨所学到的和收集到的东西应用到一个更难的挑战中。通常,这将是一个挑战的大尖峰,但成功的回报将是更大的

图表, 箱线图

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Figure 22 Challenging Cycle 图22挑战周期

 

Mastering 掌握
After a while, grinding is not enough to engage or entertain the highly skilled users, so one tactic is to keep the Boss Battles coming. Rather than resetting constantly to relative low skill / low challenge grinding, keep levelling, mastering and then testing the user. Eventually, this will cease to be entertaining though, they will out skill the system – then they can be considered the master of the whole system! 一段时间之后,研磨不足以吸引或娱乐高技能用户,所以一个策略就是保持老板之战的到来。而不是不断地重置到相对低技能/低挑战性的研磨,保持水平,掌握,然后测试用户。最终,这将不再是娱乐虽然,他们将技能的系统-然后他们可以被认为是整个系统的主人

图表, 图示

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Figure 23 Mastering Cycle 图23母版周期

Grinding to Flow

从磨削到流动

If we take all these cycles and apply them to our original Flow chart, we can see that each of these cycles can be repeated multiple times as the relative skill of the user increases. Flow is maintained by this repetition.

如果我们将所有这些循环应用到原始的流程图中,我们可以看到,随着用户相关技能的提高,每个循环都可以重复多次。这种重复维持了流动。

图表, 折线图

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Figure 24 Grinding to Flow 图24研磨成流

 

 

The key is to keep the user out of the Boredom and Frustration areas as much as possible – but not be afraid to put them there from time to time. Grinding -> levelling can lead to boredom if you never give them anything to master. Continuously testing a user without allowing them to level up would lead to being constantly frustrated.

关键是让用户尽可能远离无聊和沮丧的区域——但是不要害怕时不时地把它们放在那里。如果你从来不给他们任何东西让他们掌握,那么磨平会导致无聊。不断地测试用户而不允许他们升级会导致持续的失败。

图表

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Figure 25 Grinding to Mastery 图25从磨练到掌握

 

User Types in Gamification Gamification 的用户类型
(The HEXAD)

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 So, my Master wasn’t convinced that video game focused player types were a good fit for gamification. 所以,我的师父并不认为专注于电子游戏的玩家类型适合游戏化

Thinking he was clever, he created his own version – the User Type HEXAD. Yeah, whatever, but I do like the look of the Disruptor type.

他认为自己很聪明,于是创建了自己的版本——用户类型 HEXAD。是的,不管怎样,我确实喜欢干扰器的样子。

Motivation brings us to one of my favourite topics – user types and player types!

动机带给我们一个我最喜欢的话题-用户类型和玩家类型!

In the games industry, player types are a well-known concept. Whilst there are many player type models and taxonomies out there, such as Amy Jo Kim’s Social Player Types 47 or Chris Batemans’s Brainhex 48, the most often quoted one is Dr Richard Bartle’s Player Types 49.

在游戏行业,玩家类型是一个众所周知的概念。虽然有许多玩家类型和分类,如 Amy Jo Kim 的社交玩家类型47或 Chris Batemans 的 Brainhex 48,最常被引用的是 Dr Richard Bartle 的玩家类型49。

By his own admission, Bartle’s types are great for helping create MMO games, but they have little to no relevance when building gamified systems. As such, I created my own – Gamification User Types HEXAD.

巴特尔自己也承认,他的游戏类型对于创建 MMO 游戏非常有帮助,但是在构建游戏化的系统时,他们几乎没有什么关系。因此,我创建了自己的游戏化用户类型 HEXAD。

Rather than being based solely on observed player or user behaviour, I initially created these types as personifications of our four intrinsic motivations (RAMP).

不是仅仅基于观察到的玩家或用户行为,我最初创建了这些类型作为我们四个内在动机(RAMP)的个性化。

Before I take a proper dive into the types, it is essential to keep in mind that people cannot be broken down into simple individual categories like this. They will likely display most if not all of these traits in varying degrees 50.

在我深入研究这些类型之前,有一点非常重要,那就是人们不能像这样被分割成简单的个体类别。他们可能会在不同程度上表现出这些特征中的大部分,如果不是全部的话。

When creating a gamified system, you need to design to encourage the behaviours that will give your system the best outcome, whilst engaging as many users as possible. These types can help with that.

当创建一个游戏化的系统时,你需要鼓励那些能够给你的系统带来最好结果的行为,同时吸引尽可能多的用户。这些类型可以帮助解决这个问题。

 

In Brief

简言之

Socialisers are motivated by Relatedness. They want to interact with others and create social connections.

社交型人格是由关系驱动的,他们希望与他人互动,建立社会联系。

Free Spirits are motivated by Autonomy and self-expression. They want to create and explore.

自由精神的动机是自主性和自我表达,他们想要创造和探索。

Achievers are motivated by Mastery. They are looking to gain knowledge, learn new skills and improve themselves. They want challenges to overcome.

成功者的动机是精通。他们希望获得知识,学习新技能,提高自己。他们需要克服挑战。

Philanthropists are motivated by Purpose and Meaning. This group are altruistic, wanting to give to other people and enrich the lives of others in some way – with no expectation of reward.

慈善家的动机是目的和意义。这个群体是利他主义的,他们希望以某种方式给予他人,丰富他人的生活,而不期望得到回报。

Disruptors are motivated by Change. In general, they want to disrupt your system, either directly or through other users to force positive or negative change.

颠覆者的动机是改变。一般来说,他们想要破坏你的系统,无论是直接的还是通过其他用户来强迫积极或消极的改变。

Players are motivated by extrinsic Rewards. They will do what is needed to collect rewards from a system and not much more. They are in it for themselves.

运动员的动机是外在奖励。他们只会做需要做的事情,从一个系统中收集奖励,而不会做更多。他们是为了自己。

The User Types HEXAD

用户输入 HEXAD

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 26 Marczewski’s User Type HEXAD

图26 Marczewski 的用户类型 HEXAD

These six types are enough to help most create engaging systems, however, if you want to get really into it – keep reading. Otherwise, jump to the next chapter!

这六种类型足以帮助大多数人创建有吸引力的系统,但是,如果你想真正进入它-继续阅读。否则,跳到下一章!

For the rest of you, the User Types can be broken down into four intrinsically motivated types, four extrinsically motivated types (the Player) and four disruptive types (the Disruptor).

至于其他人,用户类型可以分为四种内在动机型,四种外在动机型(玩家型)和四种破坏型(干扰型)。

Intrinsic User Types

内部用户类型

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 27 Intrinsic User Types 图27内在用户类型

Philanthropists:  This group are looking for a sense of purpose and meaning. For some this may be altruism, for others it may be more of a feeling that what they are doing serves some higher purpose. For example, users who contribute to Wikipedia often do so with no expectation of reward, they just wish to contribute to the collective knowledge of society 44.

慈善家: 这个群体正在寻找一种使命感和意义感。对一些人来说,这可能是利他主义,对另一些人来说,这可能更多的是一种感觉,他们正在做的事情服务于某种更高的目的。例如,为维基百科作出贡献的用户往往并不期望得到回报,他们只是希望为社会的集体知识作出贡献。

Achievers: Typically motivated by mastery, you can expect achievers to want to complete every challenge your system has and be the best at each one. Whilst tokens of completion such as certificates and badges may be gratefully received, they are not going to be the reason achievers engage with the system.

成功者: 通常被精通激励,你可以期待成功者想要完成你系统中的每一个挑战,并且在每一个挑战中做到最好。虽然完成学业的标志,例如证书和徽章,可能会被感激地收到,但它们不会成为成功者参与系统的原因。

In the same way, they may enjoy having other people within the system, but rather than looking for social connections, they will be viewed as new challenges to master.

同样地,他们可能喜欢在这个系统中有其他人,但是与其寻找社会关系,他们将被视为需要掌握的新挑战。

Socialisers: Within a gamified system, people who are looking to create social connections are described as Socialisers. They would be motivated by systems that promote relatedness, like social networks.

社会化者: 在一个游戏化的系统中,那些希望建立社会关系的人被描述为社会化者。他们会被促进关联的系统所激励,比如社交网络。

Free Spirits: Free Spirits are primarily motivated by autonomy. Autonomy, in the context of the User Types, refers to freedom from external control. They welcome systems that allowed exploration or creativity.

自由精神: 自由精神的主要动机是自主性。在用户类型的上下文中,自治是指不受外部控制的自由。他们欢迎允许探索或创造的系统。

Player (Extrinsic) User Sub-Types

播放器(非固有)用户子类型

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 28 Player User Sub-Types

图28玩家用户子类型

At their core, the Player user type is motivated by extrinsic rewards. They are the user type that will respond well to systems that offer points and badges as their core “game” elements. Within this type, there are several subtypes that behave in a similar way to the intrinsic user types to obtain the rewards on offer.

在他们的核心,玩家用户类型的动机是外在奖励。他们是用户类型,将反应良好的系统,提供积分和徽章作为他们的核心“游戏”元素。在此类型中,有几个子类型的行为与内部用户类型的行为类似,以获得提供的奖励。

Self-Seeker: This group of users will act in a similar way to Philanthropists. They will answer people’s questions, share knowledge and be helpful – but for a price. If there is no reward, do not expect them to get involved! They can be useful when quantity is more important than quality.

寻求自我者: 这组用户将以类似慈善家的方式行事。他们会回答人们的问题,分享知识,提供帮助——但是要付出代价。如果没有奖励,不要指望他们参与进来!当数量比质量更重要的时候,它们是有用的。

Consumer: Consumers will modify their behaviours to get rewards. If that requires them to learn new skills or take on challenges, like an Achiever, then they will do it. However, if they can get rewards for just doing the bare minimum – even better. Think of them as the ones who will enter competitions just for the prize or who shop at one store just for the loyalty programme.

消费者: 消费者会改变他们的行为以获得回报。如果这需要他们学习新的技能或者接受挑战,就像一个成功者,那么他们就会去做。然而,如果他们仅仅做最低限度的事情就能得到奖励,那就更好了。把他们想象成那些仅仅为了奖品而参加竞赛的人,或者只是为了忠诚度计划而在一家商店购物的人。

Networker: Where a Socialiser connects to others because they are looking for relatedness, Networkers are looking for useful contacts from whom to gain something. They follow the big influencers on social networks, not because they are interested in them but because they hope it will get them noticed, increase their influence and lead to reward. They probably love Klout (R.I.P) or Kred!

社交网络用户: 当社交网络用户因为寻找关系而与他人建立联系时,社交网络用户就会寻找有用的联系人,从他们那里获得一些东西。他们关注社交网络上的大影响者,不是因为他们对他们感兴趣,而是因为他们希望这能引起他们的注意,增加他们的影响力并带来回报。他们可能喜欢 Klout (R.I.P)或 Kred!

Exploiter: Like Free Spirits, these people are looking for the boundaries of the system, where they can go and what they can do. However, for them, it is a way to find new ways to rewards.

剥削者: 就像自由精神一样,这些人在寻找系统的边界,他们可以去哪里,他们可以做什么。然而,对他们来说,这是一种寻找新的奖励方式的途径。

If they find a loophole, do not expect them to report it unless they feel others are earning more than them exploiting it!

如果他们发现了一个漏洞,不要指望他们报告,除非他们觉得其他人比他们利用它赚得更多!

They are the most likely to exploit the system, some would even describe them as cheats. They are also the people who will build objects just to sell. Think of Second Life. Many people started to build custom items and objects, but some realised that as well as being fun, they could make some money from selling items. For a few this turned into a way of making a living 51. They stopped making things for fun and just made them for profit.

他们最有可能利用这个系统,有些人甚至把他们描述为骗子。他们也是那些仅仅为了销售而制作物品的人。想想第二人生。许多人开始建立自定义项目和对象,但一些人意识到,除了有趣,他们可以从销售项目赚钱。对一些人来说,这变成了谋生的手段。他们不再为了好玩而制造东西,而是为了赚钱。

––––––- – – – – – – –

The Player User Type is important to recognise, as most people coming into a gamified system are likely to enter initially due to rewards (points, prizes etc.). The trick is to try to convert them from being reward oriented into intrinsically motivated users (Socialiser, Free Spirit, Achiever, and Philanthropist).

玩家用户类型很重要,因为大多数进入游戏化系统的人最初可能是因为奖励(积分、奖品等)而进入的。诀窍在于试图将他们从以奖励为导向转变为内在动机的用户(Socialiser、 Free Spirit、 Achiever 和 philanthropiter)。

There is some evidence in work done by Herbert Et Al 50 to show that the extrinsic types will convert to their analogous intrinsic types. For example, a Networker may convert to a Socialiser over time, but it is not a certainty in all cases. Design for the intrinsic user types that benefit your system but include reward paths in the on-boarding process for best effect and greatest coverage.

在 Herbert Et Al 50所做的工作中有一些证据表明,外在类型将转化为其类似的内在类型。例如,一个网络用户可能会随着时间的推移转换成一个 Socialiser,但是并不是所有的情况都是确定的。设计固有的用户类型,有利于您的系统,但包括奖励路径在登机过程中的最佳效果和最大的覆盖范围。

Disruptor User Sub-Types

干扰用户子类型

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 29 Disruptor User Sub-Types

图29干扰用户子类型

Disruptors disrupt a system, positively or negatively, in some way. This may be by acting on users or on the system itself. As with the Player type, the Disruptor type is a group rather than a single type. However, I do not tend to go into the detail, as the effect on your design is generally the same for all the variations of the type.

干扰器以某种方式正面或负面地扰乱系统。这可以通过对用户或系统本身进行操作来实现。与播放器类型一样,干扰器类型是一组而不是单一类型。但是,我不想深入细节,因为对于类型的所有变化,对您的设计的影响通常是相同的。

Going into a deep dive, we get these four main types of Disruptor:

深入研究一下,我们得到了四种主要类型的干扰器:

Griefer: This is straight out of Bartle’s expanded eight types. I have chosen to use Bartle’s description because this is the pure bully type. If you have ever heard of the Triad (or indeed Tetrad) of Dark Personalities 52 – these guys will tick one or all of the boxes!

格里弗: 这是直接从巴特尔的八种扩展类型。我选择使用巴特尔的描述,因为这是纯粹的恶霸类型。如果你曾经听说过黑暗人格的三位一体(或确切地说是四位一体)52-这些家伙将勾选一个或所有的方块!

They want to affect other users negatively, just because they can. It may be to prove a point about the fact they do not like the system, it may just be for fun. They have no place in most gamified systems, so you need to find ways to either change their minds – or get rid of them.

他们希望对其他用户产生负面影响,仅仅因为他们有这个能力。这可能是为了证明他们不喜欢这个系统的事实,也可能只是为了好玩。他们在大多数游戏化的系统中没有位置,所以你需要找到方法改变他们的想法——或者摆脱他们。

Destroyer: This type of user wants to break the actual system directly. This may be by hacking or finding loopholes in the rules that allow them to ruin the experience for others. Their reasons, again, may be because they dislike the system, or it may just be that they find it fun to hack and break stuff. If you cannot convince them to convert to an Improver, then you must get rid of them.

破坏者: 这类用户想直接破坏实际系统。这可能是通过黑客攻击或发现规则中的漏洞,让他们毁掉其他人的体验。他们的理由,再次,可能是因为他们不喜欢这个系统,或者可能只是因为他们觉得黑客和破坏东西很有趣。如果你不能说服他们转换为一个即兴表演者,那么你必须摆脱他们。

Influencer: These users will try to change the way a system works by exerting influence over other users in much the same way as a political leader might. This is not to say they are a negative type, far from it. If they feel the system needs to change and you allow them a voice to help change it, they could become massive advocates. Make use of them or you will lose them – worse still they could end up switching to a Machiavellian style Griefer!

影响者: 这些用户试图通过对其他用户施加影响来改变一个系统的工作方式,就像政治领导人可能做的那样。这并不是说他们是消极的类型,远非如此。如果他们觉得这个系统需要改变,而你允许他们发出声音来帮助改变,他们可以成为大规模的拥护者。利用他们,否则你将失去他们——更糟糕的是,他们可能最终转向一个权谋式的格里弗!

Innovator: Innovators will interact with the system with the best intentions in mind. They may hack it or find loopholes, but their aim is to change the system for the better. They are like the Free Spirit type in reality; they want to have the chance to explore the system, find problems and try to fix them. A simple example would be those who submit support tickets for bugs and track their progress. Take care of these users as they can help you massively. Mistreat them and they may well become Destroyers.

创新者: 创新者在与系统互动时,脑海中会有最好的意图。他们可能会破解或找到漏洞,但他们的目标是改变这个系统,使其变得更好。他们就像现实中的自由精神类型; 他们想要有机会去探索这个系统,找到问题并尝试解决它们。一个简单的例子是那些提交错误支持票并跟踪其进度的人。照顾好这些用户,因为他们能给你很大的帮助。如果不好好对待他们,他们很可能成为驱逐舰。

As you can see, the Disruptor can be a complex type and although they make up a very small percentage of the overall user group, they can be very powerful. Handled correctly, they could help improve your system, handled badly, they may destroy it.

正如你所看到的,Disruptor 可以是一个复杂的类型,尽管他们只占整个用户群的很小一部分,但是他们可以非常强大。如果处理得当,它们可能有助于改进您的系统,如果处理得不好,它们可能会破坏系统。

The Dodecad of User Types

用户类型的十二面体

The Dodecad is a visual summary of the 12 user types. If you look at the chart, closer to 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock are the Player user types. 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock are the disruptors and the rest are the intrinsic types.

十二面体是12种用户类型的视觉总结。如果你看图表,接近12点和6点是播放器用户类型。9点钟和3点钟是干扰因素,其余为固有类型。

图表

描述已自动生成

Figure 30 The Dodecad of User Types

图30用户类型的十二面体

Using the User Types

使用用户类型

The HEXAD is a simple framework to look at basic motivations of users who are in your system. There are three main ways to go about using the user types in the early phases of your design.

HEXAD 是一个简单的框架,用于查看系统中用户的基本动机。在设计的早期阶段使用用户类型主要有三种方式。

Survey the Populous

调查人口众多

The first option is to survey your intended target audience to find out what types they are. Then you can design a system that focuses mostly on those majorities.

第一个选择是调查你的目标受众,找出他们是什么类型的。然后你可以设计一个系统,主要关注这些大多数人。

Although surveying is a reasonable thing to do, it does have a couple of drawbacks. It assumes the questions are relevant. It requires people to self-report with honesty, something that we intend to do, but at times, we do not recognize that cognitive biases can prevent this from happening 53.

虽然测量是一种合理的做法,但它也有一些缺点。它假定这些问题是相关的。它要求人们诚实地自我报告,这是我们打算做的事情,但有时候,我们没有意识到认知偏见可以阻止这种情况发生。

The final and most important drawback is the nature of people themselves. You see, the survey provides snapshot of information on the type for a potential user before they interact with the system and out of context. Over time it has been found that the user types can change 50. The user type you are when you first start using a system may not stay the same. Therefore, surveying and building your system based on initial types may be counter-productive.

最后也是最重要的缺点是人们自身的本性。您可以看到,在潜在用户与系统交互和脱离上下文之前,调查为他们提供了类型信息的快照。随着时间的推移,人们发现用户类型可以改变50。第一次使用系统时的用户类型可能不会保持不变。因此,根据初始类型调查和构建系统可能会适得其反。

This is the approach if you are looking for a short-term campaign; you just need to work out what your potential users want over the immediate term.

如果你正在寻找一个短期的活动,这是一种方法; 你只需要找出你的潜在用户在短期内想要什么。

Design Gamification for Types

类型的设计游戏化

An alternative is to come at designing for gamification types from another direction. Define the problem your gamification is trying to solve. Next work out what user types are most likely to be able to help solve it – and build the system to encourage and support them.

另一种选择是从另一个方向设计游戏化类型。定义你的游戏化想要解决的问题。接下来,找出哪些用户类型最有可能帮助解决这个问题——并建立系统来鼓励和支持他们。

For instance, if you are looking for innovation in your company and you want to get people to submit new ideas, what types of people are most likely to give up their time to do this? Well, initially it would make sense that Philanthropists would be up for the challenge. Their “joy” comes from helping others and adding to the greater meaning of life the universe and everything.

例如,如果你正在寻找你公司的创新,你想让人们提交新的想法,那么什么类型的人最有可能放弃他们的时间来做这件事?首先,慈善家们应该准备好迎接这个挑战。他们的“快乐”来自于帮助他人,增加了宇宙和一切生命的更大意义。

This being the case, you need to create an environment that allows them to give their ideas, but also to advise others and support them with their ideas. You may also want to consider Free Spirits. They are creative and could be the ones who have explored areas where there can be the most innovation. This means you would create a system that encourages and supports their involvement. You give them tools to think creatively and develop their ideas.

在这种情况下,你需要创造一个环境,让他们能够提出自己的想法,同时也能给别人提供建议,并用他们的想法来支持他们。你也可以考虑一下自由精神。他们很有创造力,可能是那些探索了最具创新性领域的人。这意味着你将创建一个鼓励和支持他们参与的系统。你给他们工具去创造性地思考和发展他们的想法。

That is not to say you ignore the other types. You can create social networking opportunities for Socialisers or add voting systems with points and badges for the Players (and Disruptors).

这并不是说你忽略了其他类型。你可以为社交网站创造社交网络的机会,或者为玩家(和破坏者)添加带有积分和徽章的投票系统。

However, remember they are not the ones who will be helping you directly solve your problem. Also, remember that different motivations appeal to people in varying degrees and combinations.

然而,请记住,他们不是那些会直接帮助你解决问题的人。同时,记住不同的动机以不同的程度和组合吸引着人们。

Although they may be a Socialiser, they can still have traits that a Philanthropist may have.

尽管他们可能是一个社交名媛,但他们仍然可以拥有慈善家可能拥有的特质。

This approach will help you build a system that solves your problem. Yes, users may evolve their type during usage, but the system will still encourage others to come along and use it. In addition, designed well, you can keep the evolved users on board in other capacities.

这种方法将帮助您构建一个解决问题的系统。是的,用户可以在使用过程中改变他们的类型,但是系统仍然会鼓励其他人来使用它。此外,如果设计得当,你可以让进化后的用户继续使用其他功能。

User Type Lenses

用户型镜头

This is my personal favourite way of using the user types. The basic idea is to put yourself in a different position to view a problem from a different perspective. Based on the idea of a deck of lenses, stolen from Jesse Schell, each one challenges you to ask certain questions about your design to try and get a new perspective on it.

这是我个人最喜欢的使用用户类型的方式。基本的想法是把自己放在一个不同的位置,从一个不同的角度来看待一个问题。基于从杰西 · 谢尔那里偷来的一副镜头的想法,每一副镜头都要求你问一些关于你的设计的问题,试图从一个新的角度来看待它。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区                   Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区 Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区 Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区                    Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

As you design your solutions, keep asking the questions on these cards to constantly evaluate what you are building and how it will appeal to different users. Later in the book, there is an outline of more than 50 mechanics and elements that can be used to support and encourage each of the six main user types.

当你设计你的解决方案时,不断地问这些卡片上的问题,不断地评估你正在构建什么,以及它将如何吸引不同的用户。在本书的后面,有一个超过50个机制和元素的大纲,可以用来支持和鼓励六个主要用户类型中的每一个。

The Neuroscience of Gamification Gamification 的神经科学

 

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Brain chemistry is not the sort of thing I would usually be interested in. However, it is useful to understand the basics to cut through a lot of the hyperbole out there. I like cutting through things.

脑化学不是我通常感兴趣的那种东西。然而,了解一些基本的知识,去除一些夸张的说法是很有用的。我喜欢把东西切开。

 

One of the aims of this book is to give you the building blocks to hold your own in gamification. In gamification, there is often a lot of mention of concepts like “Neuroscience”, “Neurochemistry”, “Neurotransmitters” or “Brain Chemistry”. In particular, you will hear people speak about neurotransmitters such as Dopamine (can you remember where I mentioned it?).

本书的目的之一就是为你提供在游戏化过程中保持自我的积木。在游戏化过程中,经常有很多提到的概念,如“神经科学”,“神经化学”,“神经递质”或“脑化学”。特别是,你会听到人们谈论诸如多巴胺之类的神经递质(你还记得我在哪里提到它吗?).

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit signals around the brain. They all have different functions and have different effects on us. In this section, I am going to discuss four: DopamineOxytocinSerotonin and Endorphins (DOSE).

神经递质是在大脑周围传递信号的化学物质。它们都有不同的功能,对我们有不同的影响。在这一部分,我将讨论四种: 多巴胺、催产素、血清素和内啡肽。

I am not even going to pretend to be an expert in this, but I wanted to present a few things here that you should know about and more importantly, know what they do. What I have outlined here are by no means the full functions of these neurotransmitters, merely the functions we are interested in with regards to gamification.

我甚至不打算假装自己是这方面的专家,但我想在这里介绍一些你应该知道的事情,更重要的是,知道他们是做什么的。我在这里概述的绝不是这些神经递质的全部功能,而仅仅是我们感兴趣的与游戏化有关的功能。

This is all researched and validated with the wonderful Andrea Kuszewski to make sure it is as accurate as possible for you.

这一切都是研究和验证与美妙的安德里亚库舍夫斯基,以确保它是尽可能准确为您。

Dopamine

多巴胺

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 31 Dopamine 图31多巴胺

When I first started investigating gamification, everyone was talking about dopamine. It was considered the “pleasure” drug in the brain. Getting a reward, such as a digital badge, was thought to release dopamine which gave you pleasure. It turns out this is not actually quite right.

当我刚开始研究游戏化时,每个人都在谈论多巴胺。它被认为是大脑中的“快感”药物。得到一个奖励,比如一个数字徽章,被认为会释放多巴胺,给你带来快乐。事实证明这并不完全正确。

Dopamine has many functions, but I only want to talk about a couple that have relevance to us in gamification.

多巴胺有很多功能,但我只想谈谈一对与游戏化有关的夫妇。

Motivation: It is released before an event that requires some sort of response, pleasurable or otherwise, and drives us to act. So when it comes to a reward, dopamine is released in anticipation of receiving the reward, rather than after 54. This is known as incentive salience.

动机: 它在需要某种反应的事件发生之前释放出来,无论是愉悦的还是其他的,它驱使我们去行动。因此,当涉及到奖励时,多巴胺是在期待接受奖励时释放的,而不是在54岁之后。这就是所谓的激励显著性。

Learning: It is thought that dopamine plays a major role in associative learning, forming associations between an action or activity and its consequences 55

学习: 人们认为多巴胺在联想学习中起主要作用,在一个行为或活动及其后果之间形成联系。

 

Andrea Kuszewski puts it rather nicely 56:

安德里亚 · 库舍夫斯基恰如其分地说:

Excellent learning condition 良好的学习条件
=
Novel Activity 新奇的活动

Triggers dopamine 触发多巴胺

Creates a higher motivational state 创造一个更高的动机状态

Which fuels engagement and primes neurons 这些因素刺激了神经元的参与度和质数

Neurogenesis can take place 神经发生可以发生
+
Increase in synaptic plasticity 突触可塑性增长
(increase in new neural connections or learning). (增加新的神经连接或学习)

Gamification to Increase Dopamine

游戏化增加多巴胺

New and novel experiences trigger dopamine (novelty as mentioned above). So, create systems that allow discovery and exploration. Your Free Spirit user types will enjoy this! Anticipation of potential rewards is another way, so creating manageable goals (think SMART Goals) can help. Andrea wrote a series on the role of dopamine and oxytocin in sex and pleasure.

新的和新奇的经历会触发多巴胺(如上所述的新奇)。因此,创建允许发现和探索的系统。您的免费精神类型的用户将享受这一点!对潜在回报的预期是另一种方式,因此创建可管理的目标(想想 SMART 目标)可以有所帮助。安德里亚写了一系列关于多巴胺和催产素在性和快乐中的作用的文章。

The third part of the series concentrates on how ambiguity, suggestion and so on can increase pleasure 57. It is worth keeping this in mind with your systems.

这个系列的第三部分集中于模棱两可、暗示等等如何能够增加快乐。在你的系统中值得记住这一点。

Oxytocin

催产素

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Figure 32 Oxytocin

图32催产素

Oxytocin is key to how we bond to others (mothers to babies, lovers, friends etc.). It can give us a strong feeling of contentment. Studies have shown that this can even occur remotely, with Paul J. Zak suggesting that using social networks like Twitter can create a similar reaction to falling in love! 58. Oxytocin has also been shown to increase trust in groups, altruism in individuals, arousal, bonding and much more.59

催产素是我们与他人(母亲与婴儿、爱人、朋友等)建立联系的关键。它能给我们一种强烈的满足感。研究表明,这甚至可以远程发生,保罗 j. 扎克建议使用社交网络,如推特可以创建一个类似的反应坠入爱河!58.催产素也被证明可以增加团体间的信任,个体间的利他主义,唤醒,结合等等。59

However, there is another side to this. Previously thought to promote only the nicer side of social bonding, strengthening your feelings and reactions in social situations may not always be positive. In reality, it could lead to strengthening feelings of anger and dislike depending on the situation. 60,61

然而,这还有另外一面。以前认为只能促进社会联系的更好的一面,增强你在社会情境中的感受和反应,可能并不总是积极的。事实上,它可能导致加强愤怒和不喜欢的感觉取决于具体情况。6061

Gamification to Increase Oxytocin

游戏化增加催产素

Interestingly, oxytocin is released when we are engaged with a strong narrative. This would seem to be part of why stories are more memorable than just pure facts (or dull PowerPoints!). It accounts for that feeling presence as you feel empathy towards the situations in the story 62.

有趣的是,当我们沉浸在一个强烈的故事中时,催产素就会释放出来。这似乎也是为什么故事比纯粹的事实(或乏味的 ppt)更值得记住的部分原因.当你对故事中的情景产生共鸣时,这种感觉就出现了。

Actually, and this is a slight tangent, stories affect our brains as if we were experiencing the events ourselves – worth remembering that!

事实上,这是一个轻微的切题,故事影响我们的大脑,就好像我们自己正在经历这些事件一样——值得记住!

Add social aspects to your system. As mentioned above, using platforms like twitter can create bonds and feelings as strong as falling in love. Socialiser types will love it.

在你的系统中添加社交方面。正如上面提到的,使用 twitter 这样的平台可以创建像坠入爱河一样强烈的纽带和感情。社交型的人会喜欢它的。

Create a system that allows for altruism, giving to others selflessly can help create bonds and will release oxytocin – this is what the Philanthropist type lives for!

创建一个允许利他主义的系统,无私地给予他人可以帮助建立联系并释放催产素-这就是慈善家类型的生活的目的!

Also – go and hug someone – seriously!

还有——去拥抱一个人吧——真的!

Serotonin

血清素

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 33 Serotonin 图33血清素

Serotonin is a mood regulator. If you have enough you will be happy if you don’t – you will be miserable (put very simply!)63. It is triggered when you feel wanted, important and proud. This could be when you are thanked or have achieved something that required true effort. When people feel that they are unappreciated or worthless, they will have low serotonin levels.

血清素是一种情绪调节剂。如果你有足够的钱,你就会快乐,如果你没有,你就会痛苦(简单地说)63.当你感到被需要、重要和骄傲的时候,它就会被触发。这可能是当你得到感谢或者完成了一些需要真正努力的事情。当人们觉得自己不被赏识或者毫无价值时,他们的血清素水平就会降低。

Gamification to Increase Serotonin

游戏化增加血清素

Make sure your system records achievement in some way, even if it is badges. Serotonin release can be triggered by remembering past experiences where you felt wanted or important. Having badges or trophies that remind users of past success and the pride they felt at the time can do this. Also, give users the ability to thank each other in some way. This could be simple “thanks”, “like” button or a system of kudos like stars and voting.

确保你的系统以某种方式记录你的成就,即使是徽章。血清素的释放可以通过回忆过去你觉得需要或重要的经历来触发。拥有徽章或奖杯可以提醒用户过去的成功和他们当时感到的自豪感,这样就可以做到这一点。同时,让用户能够以某种方式互相感谢。这可以是简单的“谢谢”、“喜欢”按钮,或者是一个像明星和投票一样的荣誉系统。

You could set up a system where you can send virtual gifts as thanks, also potentially triggering oxytocin release for the giver – another big hit with the Philanthropist types. Anything that makes your users feel wanted and important to you and other users.

你可以建立一个系统,在那里你可以发送虚拟礼物作为感谢,也可能触发催产素释放给予者-另一个大打击与慈善家类型。任何让您的用户感到需要并且对您和其他用户很重要的东西。

Endorphins

内啡肽

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Figure 34 Beta-endorphin 图34 β- 内啡肽

Endorphins are opioids that we produce naturally as a reaction to certain stimuli. When they are released, we feel good. It can be a lot stronger than that, we can feel high or euphoric – in fact, it is very similar to morphine.

内啡肽是我们对特定刺激自然产生的阿片类物质。当他们被释放的时候,我们感觉很好。它可以比那更强烈,我们可以感到兴奋或欣快-事实上,它非常类似吗啡。

They also reduce fatigue in response to stress, or indeed pain, giving us our “second wind” that helps us push through. It is what gives runners the ability to keep going when they think they are done for physically 64. It is also released during less physical activities – such as video games.

它们还可以减少压力或者疼痛时的疲劳感,给我们“第二次精力”,帮助我们度过难关。这就是为什么当跑步者认为他们的身体已经不行了的时候,他们能够继续跑下去。它也可以在体力活动较少的时候释放,比如电子游戏。

Overcoming the challenges in games can stimulate the release of endorphins, making gamers feel better about themselves and giving a sense of achievement 65.

克服游戏中的挑战可以刺激内啡肽的释放,让玩家对自己感觉更好,给人一种成就感。

Gamification to Increase Endorphins

游戏化增加内啡肽

The easiest way to stimulate endorphin release with gamification is to create situations where your users will feel they have achieved something. Rather than giving rewards for clicking buttons, you need to create challenges that require skill and effort to complete. If they feel they have worked hard, they will get that feeling of fiero, an epic win and with luck a hit of endorphins. The Achiever and Player types will love this!

通过游戏化来刺激内啡肽释放的最简单方法是创造一种让你的用户感觉他们已经取得了某些成就的环境。与其给点击按钮奖励,你需要创造需要技能和努力才能完成的挑战。如果他们觉得他们已经很努力了,他们就会有 fiero 的感觉,一场史诗般的胜利,并且运气好的话会有内啡肽的打击。成功者和玩家类型会喜欢这个!

There are many other neurotransmitters that could be discussed here, such as endocannabinoids and their involvement in motivation 66, however, these four give you enough to get going.

还有许多其他的神经递质可以在这里讨论,比如内源性大麻素以及它们在动机66中的作用,然而,这四种神经递质足以让你开始行动。

The point of knowing any of this is to understand that gamification can be used to influence mood and behaviour at a chemical level in the brain – making it very powerful if done properly and potentially harmful if you get it wrong.

了解这些的意义在于理解游戏化可以用来影响大脑中的情绪和行为——如果操作得当,它会非常强大,如果操作失误,它可能会有害。

User Types and Neurotransmitters

使用者类型与神经递质

  • Achiever (Mastery): Endorphin, Dopamine 成功者(掌握) : 内啡肽,多巴胺
  • Socialiser (Relatedness): Oxytocin, Serotonin 社交网络: 催产素,血清素
  • Philanthropist (Meaning/Purpose): Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin

慈善家(意义/目的) : 多巴胺,催产素,血清素

  • Free Spirit (Autonomy): Dopamine 自由精神(自主性) : 多巴胺
  • Player (Rewards): Dopamine, Endorphin, Serotonin 玩家(奖励) : 多巴胺,内啡肽,血清素

Building Gamified Solutions 构建游戏化的解决方案

徽标

中度可信度描述已自动生成

 

How to Start with The User Journey

如何开始用户之旅

 

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I have been on a journey of learning for a long time now and it is my time to be the Master. Here you will find a journey of several phases explained. I am well and truly out of the Enthuse and Engage phases. My End Game? My Master will find out soon.

我已经踏上学习的旅程很长时间了,现在是我成为大师的时候了。在这里你会发现一个旅程的几个阶段解释。我已经完全摆脱了热情和参与阶段。我的终极游戏?我的主人很快就会知道的。

卡通人物

描述已自动生成

The Player Journey is a concept that I came across from the wonderful Amy Jo Kim. She talks about the player journey in terms of three main phases. On-boarding, Habit Building and Mastery 67

玩家之旅是我从美妙的 Amy Jo Kim 那里得到的一个概念。她用三个主要阶段来描述球员的经历。入职、养成习惯和掌握67

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Figure 35 Amy Jo Kim’s Player Journey

图35 Amy Jo Kim 的球员之旅

Over time, these are the main phases a player goes through whilst engaged with a game. They begin the path as a Newbie, orienting to the system they are entering. During the habit-building phase, they start to integrate the system into their specific situation or circumstances.

随着时间的推移,这些都是主要阶段的球员经历,而与游戏。他们开始的路径作为一个新手,定向的系统,他们正在进入。在养成习惯的阶段,他们开始根据自己的具体情况或环境整合这个系统。

Eventually, they reach a level where there is no longer an increasing challenge and they will have mastered the material or system.

最终,他们达到一个水平,不再有一个不断增加的挑战,他们将掌握的材料或系统。

The same is true for users going through a gamified system. Users enter the system and must learn how to use it. Then they need to start using it day to day and finally, once they have mastered the system they will probably need something more.

对于正在经历游戏化系统的用户来说也是如此。用户进入系统后必须学习如何使用它。然后他们需要开始每天使用它,最后,一旦他们掌握了这个系统,他们可能需要更多的东西。

As gamification and games are not quite the same and based on some of my experiences, I created a slight variation, called the Gamification User Journey.

由于游戏化和游戏并不完全一样,并且基于我的一些经验,我创建了一个小小的变化,称为游戏化用户之旅。

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 36 Gamification User Journey 图36游戏化用户之旅

Discover

发现

There must be a discovery phase, like the attract screen in the arcades, because without it – how will people start to use the system? It may just be an email to tell you to do some mandatory training, it may be subtle posters that hint at something new. However, you decide to do it, it is essential and must fit with the overall theme of the programme.

必须有一个发现阶段,就像拱廊里的吸引屏幕,因为没有它——人们将如何开始使用该系统?它可能只是一封电子邮件,告诉你做一些强制性的培训,它可能是微妙的海报,暗示一些新的东西。然而,你决定这样做,它是必不可少的,而且必须符合节目的整体主题。

On-board

在飞机上

Nothing new here, this is the scaffolding of the whole show. If you get this wrong, people will not get any further in their journey! It has the potential to be a massive drop off phase of the journey. You must balance it just right, to hold the user’s hand enough to keep them going, but not so much they feel babied and foolish. Measured use of rewards can be of great benefit in this stage as digital “pats on the back”.

这里没什么新鲜的,这是整个演出的脚手架。如果你搞错了,人们就不会在他们的旅程中走得更远!它有可能成为旅程中的一个巨大的下降阶段。你必须恰到好处地平衡它,握住用户的手,让他们继续前进,但不要让他们觉得自己像婴儿一样愚蠢。在这个阶段,有节制地使用奖励可以带来巨大的好处,因为这是数字化的“表扬”。

Immerse

沉浸

Once they are in the system and know what they are doing, they can immerse themselves in the activities – be it learning, day to day sales entry or any other activity. This is where good activity and feedback loops are essential to keep people engaged. It is also the stage of the journey where you will need to stop relying on rewards and start helping the users find their intrinsic reason to be there.

一旦他们进入这个系统并且知道他们在做什么,他们就可以全身心地投入到这些活动中——无论是学习、日常销售记录还是其他任何活动。这就是良好的活动和反馈循环对于保持人们参与是必不可少的。这也是旅程的一个阶段,你需要停止依赖奖励,开始帮助用户找到他们存在的内在原因。

Master

师父

This is the phase where a couple of things may happen. This may be the point where the journey ends, the user has finished and has met the end-game requirements, game over man… However, it may also be the start of the next phase of the journey, a bit like the Black belt in martial arts. You have mastered the first journey, now you must move on to the second and third etc. Achievers aim for this level and will work hard to get it. Make sure they feel rewarded for their efforts (and I don’t mean points and badges!!!)

在这个阶段,可能会发生一些事情。这可能是旅程结束的地方,用户已经完成并满足了游戏结束的要求,游戏结束的人… 然而,它也可能是下一阶段旅程的开始,有点像武术中的黑带。你已经掌握了第一个旅程,现在你必须继续第二个和第三个等等。成功者的目标是达到这个水平,并将努力工作以达到这个水平。确保他们的努力得到回报(我不是指积分和徽章! ! !)

Replay

重放

If there is no specific moment where the journey ends, you need to include replayability. This can come in several forms. It could be an opportunity for the ones who have completed, to try and ace it. Think about casual games where you can finish a level with 1, 2 or 3 stars. The replay value comes from trying to get through levels you didn’t score 3 on again, trying to attain the maximum.

如果没有特定的时刻,旅程结束,你需要包括可重玩性。这可以有几种形式。对于那些已经完成的人来说,这可能是一个机会,让他们尝试并拿下它。想象一下休闲游戏,你可以完成一级、二级或三级。重放价值来自于尝试通过你没有得到3分的关卡,再次尝试达到最大值。

It may be that they get to play again at a high difficulty – remember the Nightmare mode from Doom? It may be that they can play again with a different role.

它可能是,他们得到发挥在一个高难度-还记得噩梦模式从毁灭?也许他们可以再次扮演一个不同的角色。

In the case of a learning related system, they could go back with the role of master, rather than apprentice, acting as a guide and mentor to those who are yet to master the earlier phases. You can really leverage the Philanthropist User Types here.

在学习相关系统的情况下,他们可以回到师傅的角色,而不是学徒,充当那些尚未掌握早期阶段的指导者和导师。你可以在这里使用慈善家用户类型。

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 37 The Gamification User Journey

图37游戏化用户之旅

 

How to Use Points, Badges and Leaderboards

如何使用积分、徽章和排行榜

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

Winning is in my DNA. I am motivated by being the best, but a reward every now and again is always appreciated, at least, it would be if I ever got one. Even a pat on the back would be nice.

胜利是我的基因。我的动机是成为最好的,但是时不时的一个奖励总是值得赞赏的,至少,如果我曾经得到过的话。即使是在背上拍一下也是不错的。

卡通人物

描述已自动生成

In contrast to intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation is all about the rewards. Deci and Ryan define this as

与内在动机相反,外在动机完全取决于奖励。 Deci 和 Ryan 将其定义为

“a construct that pertains whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome” 39

”只要某项活动是为了获得某种可分离的结果而进行的,就属于这一构想”39

In terms of gamification, these are considered as any reward that is given to a user as an incentive to behave in a certain way or complete actions. Examples would be points, badges or leaderboards (PBL). As you saw in the last chapter, I refer to the users who engage best with systems focusing on extrinsic rewards as Players.

就游戏化而言,这些奖励被认为是给予用户的任何奖励,以激励他们按照某种方式行动或完成某些动作。例如积分、徽章或排行榜(PBL)。正如你在上一章中看到的,我提到的玩家是那些最擅长使用外部奖励系统的玩家。

Common examples of gamification often concentrate on these three simple game-like elements, often with unintended results. You often find them on websites looking to increase user engagement. Sadly, these implementations are often poorly thought out and designed.

常见的游戏化例子往往集中在这三个简单的类似游戏的元素,往往有意想不到的结果。你经常可以在网站上找到这些工具,以增加用户的参与度。遗憾的是,这些实现通常都没有经过深思熟虑和设计。

First, let’s explore the use of these. There is no denying that when you are building a gamified solution, at least one of these is going to turn up at some point, so it is best to understand them and understand their uses and limitations.

首先,让我们探索一下它们的用途。不可否认,当你构建一个游戏化的解决方案时,至少其中一个会在某个时刻出现,因此最好理解它们,并理解它们的用途和局限性。

Points

积分

Giving points is a simple enough concept. In video games, points are often given to players for completing certain tasks. Kill the bad guy, find the scroll, save the prince or princess. In gamification, this is frequently translated into completing less enjoyable tasks. Press the “Like” button, leave a comment and use the same shop multiple times.

给点是一个非常简单的概念。在电子游戏中,玩家完成某些任务时,通常会得到积分。杀了坏人,找到卷轴,救出王子或公主。在游戏化中,这经常被转化为完成不那么愉快的任务。点击“喜欢”按钮,留下评论,多次使用同一家商店。

Points help to power progress tracking, reward management, badges, achievements, leaderboard position and more. Even if the end user never sees them, most systems have some form of points running in the background.

积分有助于推动进度跟踪、奖励管理、徽章、成就、排行榜等等。即使最终用户从未看到它们,大多数系统都有某种形式的点在后台运行。

Points can come in several forms such as Experience Points (XP), virtual currency, stars, kudos and so on. Whatever they may be called, at their core they are all types of feedback.

积分可以以几种形式出现,比如经验积分(XP)、虚拟货币、星级、荣誉等等。不管它们被称为什么,它们的核心都是各种类型的反馈。

Virtual Economy

虚拟经济

Points can be seen as a type of currency on their own. In a way, you are paid in this virtual currency for undertaking actions that the system has asked you to engage in. However, it is possible to take that a step further. You could create an economy where it is possible to buy, sell and trade using the virtual currency. Virtual economies can be based entirely in the virtual world or can break that barrier and have some effect on the real world, depending on how they are designed.

点数本身可以被看作是一种货币。在某种程度上,你在这个虚拟货币中获得了报酬,因为你采取了系统要求你参与的行动。然而,我们可以更进一步。你可以创造一个可以用虚拟货币进行买卖和交易的经济。虚拟经济可以完全基于虚拟世界,也可以打破这个障碍,对现实世界产生一些影响,这取决于它们是如何设计的。

Many games allow you to collect coins or points and then exchange them for in-game goods. An example that I have been playing recently is Fallout: Shelter from Bethesda. As you play the game, you earn bottle caps – the in-game currency. Those bottle tops can then be used to purchase new rooms for your shelter. This is a self-contained virtual economy. You play the game and do the deeds asked of me, earn virtual money and spend it in the virtual shop.

许多游戏允许你收集硬币或积分,然后用它们来交换游戏中的商品。我最近玩的一个例子是《辐射: 贝塞斯达避难所》。当你玩游戏的时候,你可以赚到瓶盖——游戏中的货币。这些瓶盖可以用来为你的避难所购买新的房间。这是一个自给自足的虚拟经济。你玩游戏,做事情要求我,赚取虚拟货币,并花在虚拟商店。

However, if you wish to speed up the process, you can use real money to purchase more bottle caps.

然而,如果你想加快这个过程,你可以用真金白银去买更多的瓶盖。

At this point, the virtual economy can be influenced by the real world. This is something that social games like Farmville have been doing very well for some years now.

在这一点上,虚拟经济可以受到现实世界的影响。这是像法姆维尔这样的社交游戏多年来一直做得很好的东西。

Another way for the real world to influence the virtual economy is the sale of virtual goods for real money. As I mentioned previously, Second Life produced a real world millionaire, Anshe Chung 51, through the sale of virtual property for real money!

现实世界影响虚拟经济的另一种方式是虚拟货币的销售。正如我前面提到的,第二人生通过出售虚拟财产换取真正的货币,产生了一个真实世界的百万富翁,钟安社51岁!

All of this can be done in gamification, but you have to consider some of the legal ramifications that go with economies that affect the real world as the rules can vary – especially around using virtual currency as a replacement for real currency 68.

所有这些都可以通过游戏化来实现,但是你必须考虑一些影响现实世界的经济体的法律后果,因为游戏规则各不相同——尤其是在使用虚拟货币替代真实货币的情况下。

As an example of how this may work in gamification, consider a software company. They have a base product that is free to use. Additional functionality can be purchased as and when it is required. In games, this is often referred to as freemium. The basics are free, but extras cost. They want to create a loyalty scheme where users of the free software can earn points that can be traded for time-limited upgrades.

以一家软件公司为例,说明这种方法在游戏化中的应用。他们有一个免费使用的基础产品。额外的功能可以在需要时购买。在游戏中,这通常被称为免费增值。基本服务是免费的,但是额外的费用。他们希望建立一个忠诚度计划,让自由软件的用户可以获得积分,这些积分可以用来交换有时间限制的升级。

In this situation, you could set up a system where a desirable action, such as sharing a link to the software or helping others in a forum earns the user points. Points are then converted into virtual currency and that virtual currency can be used to purchase these upgrades.

在这种情况下,你可以建立一个系统,在这个系统中你可以采取一些可取的行动,比如分享一个软件的链接,或者在论坛中帮助其他人赢得用户点数。然后点数被转换成虚拟货币,虚拟货币可以用来购买这些升级。

You must decide how much effort each of these upgrades is worth and then convert the points earned in a sensible way. For instance, if the upgrade is worth $20, you do not want to give it away to someone just for one share!

你必须决定每个升级值多少努力,然后转换积分赚取一个明智的方式。例如,如果升级值20美元,你就不会为了一份而把它送给别人!

giffgaff, a mobile network provider, do exactly this with minutes. Supporting other users on the forum earns you minutes that can be used on your mobile phone 69.

Giffgaff,一家移动网络供应商,用分钟就可以做到这一点。支持论坛上的其他用户可以为你赢得分钟,并且可以用你的手机。69。

Badges

徽章

Badges and trophies are the next level of feedback in a system. They represent particular achievements. In games, you will see them being given for displays of skill such as long-distance shots, kill streaks, and finding secrets.

徽章和奖杯是系统中下一级的反馈。它们代表着特殊的成就。在游戏中,你会看到他们被给予技能的展示,如远距离射击,杀死挑战,和寻找秘密。

In gamification, they are more likely to be used to say well done for repeated activities and their related achievements. Liking 100 articles or being loyal to a service provider for an extended period, that sort of thing. Done well they can represent anything from social status to competency and carry purpose and meaning to the users who earned them.

在游戏化中,他们更可能被用来表达对重复活动和相关成就的赞赏。喜欢100篇文章或者长期忠于服务提供商,诸如此类。如果做得好,它们可以代表任何东西,从社会地位到能力,并为赢得它们的用户带来目的和意义。

Try to make badges fun, both graphically and in their meaning. Getting a new badge for every 10 shares gets old very fast. Try to find 试着让徽章变得有趣,不管是形象的还是它们的含义。每10股换一个新徽章很快就会过时。试着找到fun 有趣的 ways to assign them. As you have seen, I like to include rewards that relate to 42 where I can – 分配它们的方法。正如你所看到的,我喜欢包括与42有关的奖励,我可以-Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy 银河系漫游指南 fans will know why. My other favourite is to give badges for 11 actions (look into 粉丝们会知道为什么。我的另一个最爱是为11个动作颁发奖章Spinal Tap 脊椎穿刺 – it goes to 11). Surprise people and make them laugh. Make them work and have badges that require exploration and imagination. – 11).给人们惊喜,让他们开怀大笑。让他们的工作和徽章,需要探索和想象力

Not all badges have to be given automatically; you can set ones up that are assigned by peers. When a member of an online forum is helpful, other users of the forum give them a badge that thanks them and commends them for being so helpful. Not only does this have more meaning to them, it shows other users that they can go to them for help! Many forums use a system of Karma points for exactly this. Another benefit is that it can help to highlight high-value users to admin and other users.

不是所有的徽章都必须自动颁发,你可以设置由同行分配的徽章。当一个在线论坛的成员提供帮助时,论坛的其他用户会给他们一个徽章,表示感谢和赞扬他们的帮助。这不仅对他们来说有更多的意义,而且向其他用户表明他们可以向他们寻求帮助!许多论坛使用一个卡玛点数系统来完成这个任务。另一个好处是,它可以帮助突出高价值的用户管理和其他用户。

As people become more involved with a system, there is a point where you cannot just keep giving endless badges and expect users to continue to be engaged. If your system wants to encourage long-term usage, it must have more than badges to keep people going. You can add new badges as you go along, but that can become problematic. It is time-consuming and hard to keep creating inventive and interesting badges. You also must be careful that the ones you add do not devalue ones that are already there.

随着人们越来越多地参与到一个系统中,你不能只是不停地给用户颁发徽章,然后期望用户继续参与。如果你的系统想要鼓励人们长期使用,它必须有比徽章更多的东西来保证人们继续使用。你可以添加新的徽章,但这可能会成为问题。要不断创造出具有创造性和趣味性的徽章,既费时又困难。你还必须注意,你添加的内容不会贬值已经存在的内容。

This happens either when you make a badge easier to earn or if a more valuable badge is added to the system and is relatively easier to earn than previous badges.

这种情况要么发生在你使徽章更容易获得的时候,要么发生在系统中添加了更有价值的徽章并且比以前的徽章更容易获得的时候。

Badges in Education

教育徽章

In education, they can be used very effectively as a way of representing academic achievement as part of a personal record in systems such as Moodle. Rather than just relying on grades, experiences points leading to academically related badges can be implemented to help students track their progress in a more granular and real-time way. It doesn’t even need to be a full learning management system.

在教育领域,它们可以被非常有效地用作一种方式,将学术成就作为在 Moodle 等体系中个人记录的一部分。与仅仅依靠分数不同,可以实施与学术相关的徽章的经验点,以帮助学生以更细粒度和实时的方式跟踪他们的进展。它甚至不需要是一个完整的学习管理系统。

Education and gamification expert Alice Keeler makes amazing use of Google spreadsheets to manage everything from gamified peer assessment to personal development plans 70.

教育和游戏化专家爱丽丝 · 基勒惊人地使用谷歌电子表格来管理从游戏化的同伴评估到个人发展计划的所有事情。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 38 Google Spreadsheet personal development plan with badges.

图38带徽章的 Google 电子表格个人发展计划。

Foursquare

In the more consumer facing world, Foursquare 71  made a lot of use of points and badges. Every time you checked in you were rewarded with points. Collect enough points or check in a certain number of times and you would get badges.

在更多面向消费者的世界中,Foursquare 71大量使用积分和徽章。每次你登记入住,你都会得到积分。收集足够的积分或者签到一定次数,你就会得到徽章。

For a long time, it worked very well for them, with millions of people checking in on a regular basis. However, after a while, the badges began to lose their shine as predicted by Overjustification Effect 72, which I will come to later. There is not much meaning attributed to becoming the Mayor of your village – especially if it only takes a few check-ins to earn it!

在很长一段时间里,它对他们非常有效,有数百万人定期登记入住。然而,过了一段时间,徽章开始失去他们的光芒,正如 overjustify Effect 72所预测的那样,我将在后面谈到这一点。成为你们村的村长并没有多大意义——尤其是如果只需要几次签到就可以得到它的话!

Interestingly, in 2014 they split the app into two different apps, the check-in part becoming Swarm. At that point, they removed all the gamification that seemed to have lost its effectiveness. However, it turns out that people must have missed those gamified elements – because by August of 2015, almost all the gamification had been added back in!

有趣的是,在2014年,他们把这个应用分成了两个不同的应用,登记部分变成了 Swarm。在这一点上,他们取消了所有似乎已经失去效力的游戏化。然而,事实证明,人们一定是错过了这些游戏化的元素——因为到2015年8月,几乎所有的游戏化都被添加回去了!

Levels/Ranks

级别/职级

Levels or ranks are there to recognise prolonged and consistent personal investment from a user, expertise or value. As their investment into the system and in turn, their value to the system increases, so their rank should also increase. Ranks should be permanent and transparent, just like everything else I have spoken about thus far!  It should be clear how and why a user has reached a certain rank.

级别或等级的存在是为了认可来自用户、专业知识或价值的长期持续的个人投资。随着他们对制度的投入,反过来,他们对制度的价值也在增加,所以他们的等级也应该增加。等级应该是永久的和透明的,就像我到目前为止所说的其他事情一样!应该清楚用户是如何以及为什么达到某个级别的。

Leaderboards

排行榜

After our brief look at rewards, let’s discuss leaderboards. In the gamification world, there are mixed views on leaderboards and their effectiveness 73. That said, they are something you will see often in gamified products and solutions.

在我们简短的回顾奖励之后,让我们来讨论排行榜。在游戏化的世界里,对于排行榜及其有效性有着不同的看法。也就是说,你会经常在游戏化的产品和解决方案中看到它们。

Leaderboards are an effective way to show a user quickly where they currently stand within a gamified system. A simple example is the Gamification Gurus leaderboard from the company Rise (Figure 39). Each month they release an update that shows who has been active in the gamification world that month. It is a great example of a leaderboard being used in isolation from the points and badges that are often associated with trivial implementations of gamification.

在游戏化的系统中,排行榜是快速向用户显示他们当前所处位置的有效方式。一个简单的例子是来自 Rise 公司的游戏化大师排行榜(图39)。每个月他们都会发布一个更新,显示当月在游戏化世界中活跃的人。这是一个很好的例子,它将排行榜与游戏化的琐碎实现分开使用。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 39 Gamification Gurus Leaderboard

图39游戏化大师排行榜

For me, there are three main types of leaderboards: absolute, relative and non-competitive.

对我来说,排行榜主要有三种类型: 绝对排行榜、相对排行榜和非竞争排行榜。

Absolute Leaderboards

绝对排行榜

An absolute leaderboard displays the absolute leader of a competition on the leaderboard. For example, a golf tournament leaderboard that tracks players performance across a round and the tournament. In gamification implementations, this has pros and cons.

绝对排行榜显示了绝对领先的竞争在排行榜上。例如,一个高尔夫比赛的排行榜,追踪运动员在一轮和比赛中的表现。在游戏化的实现中,这有利也有弊。

It is great for the people who are visible on the Leaderboard; it can give them a feeling of achievement and status. It is also useful for others who may want to see who is best at a certain activity. It is a safe bet that if they are at the top of the leaderboard for an activity that interests you, it is worth considering getting in touch with them!

对于那些在排行榜上显眼的人来说,这是件好事; 它可以给他们一种成就感和地位感。对于那些想知道谁在某项活动中表现最好的人来说,这也是很有用的。这是一个安全的赌注,如果他们在一个活动的排行榜首位,你感兴趣,这是值得考虑与他们联系!

However, it can be very demoralizing for those at the bottom of the leaderboard. If you are in 100th place, the top spot can look like a very unachievable goal!

然而,对于那些在排行榜底部的人来说,这是非常令人沮丧的。如果你是第100名,那么第一名看起来就像是一个无法实现的目标!

For some, this may be a great challenge, but others will feel the reward for rising up the rankings is not worth the effort and disengage almost totally.

对于一些人来说,这可能是一个巨大的挑战,但其他人会觉得提高排名的回报不值得付出努力,几乎完全脱离。

Relative Leaderboards

相对排行榜

Relative leaderboards try to solve the issues of absolute leaderboards by showing a user’s position relative to others of a similar rank. This way, although the user may be 900th out of 1000, they only see the 10 people above and below them on the leaderboard. This means they do not get the issue of feeling inadequate or that there is no hope of ever reaching the top. The user is less aware of how far down the list they are!

相对排行榜试图解决绝对排行榜的问题,通过显示用户相对于其他相似排名的用户的位置。这样,虽然用户在1000人中排名900,但是他们在排行榜上只能看到他们上面和下面的10人。这意味着他们不会觉得自己力不从心,也不会觉得自己没有希望升到最高层。用户很少意识到他们在列表的下面有多远!

Again, there are downsides to this. One is technical. To show a user’s relative position, you must know who they are – so they must be logged in to a system or otherwise engaged in the game or metrics. The other issue is that it could be seen as meaningless just knowing who is doing the same as you. As I said, some people like to see the challenge ahead of them, some don’t.

同样,这也有不利的一面。一个是技术性的。为了显示用户的相对位置,您必须知道他们是谁——因此他们必须登录到系统中,或者以其他方式参与游戏或度量。另一个问题是,仅仅知道谁在做和你一样的事情就可能被视为毫无意义。正如我所说,有些人喜欢看到他们面前的挑战,有些人不喜欢。

Non-Competitive Leaderboards

非竞争性排行榜

One major criticism of leaderboards is that they create competition between people where in fact collaboration is often a much better way to improve results in teams. Karl Kapp, a gamification expert in the field of education, explains that competitive environments in education often impede the learning process because it creates an environment of selfishness 74.

对排行榜的一个主要批评是,它们在人与人之间制造竞争,而事实上,合作往往是提高团队成果的更好方式。教育领域的游戏化专家卡尔 · 卡普解释说,教育中的竞争环境常常阻碍学习过程,因为它创造了一个自私自利的环境。

To try to combat this, it is possible to create a non-competitive leaderboard.

为了解决这个问题,可以创建一个非竞争性的排行榜。

Take the numbers off a leaderboard and forget the order in which they are displayed for a moment. What are you left with? A group of people who are all involved in the same activity.

把排行榜上的数字去掉,暂时忘记它们显示的顺序。你还剩下什么?参与同一活动的一群人。

By representing the data slightly differently, you can move away from the competitive emphasis of leaderboards and start to see them as a social discovery tool.

通过以略微不同的方式表示数据,你可以摆脱排行榜的竞争重点,开始将它们视为一种社交发现工具。

图形用户界面, 网站

描述已自动生成

Figure 40 Gamification Conversations

图40游戏化对话

The above image is the Gamification Conversations leaderboard. You can see that there are no numbers, giving it the appearance of just a wall of names and faces. It feels less of a competition. In this instance, the position of the images is also randomised, so each time you come to the page, it will show you different people.

上图是游戏化对话排行榜。你可以看到这里没有数字,只有一堵名字和面孔的墙。这让人感觉不像是一场竞争。在这种情况下,图像的位置也是随机的,所以每次你来到页面,它会显示不同的人。

As well as displaying status, leaderboards can serve other purposes. If the leaderboard is set up to show you in relation to colleagues or friends, you may find that social peer pressure comes into play in the form of one-up-man ship. It is amazing how many people in a peer group will want to hit the top spot of a simple leaderboard. They can be good forms of rapid feedback for users. Rising up the leaderboard as you succeed at tasks is a very visible sign that you are doing something right.

除了显示状态,排行榜还可以用于其他目的。如果设置排行榜是为了显示你与同事或朋友的关系,你可能会发现,社会同侪压力以一人之上的形式发挥作用。令人惊讶的是,一个同龄人群体中有多少人想要在一个简单的排行榜上占据榜首位置。它们可以成为用户快速反馈的好形式。当你完成任务时,排行榜的上升是一个非常明显的信号,表明你正在做正确的事情。

It can also be used as a great social connection tool. As I said, if people are near the top of a leaderboard it is a safe bet they are worth talking to. If they are elsewhere on the board, then at least you know they have similar interests to you.

它也可以作为一个伟大的社会联系工具。正如我所说的,如果人们在排行榜上靠前,那么他们是值得交谈的。如果他们在董事会的其他位置,那么至少你知道他们对你有着相似的兴趣。

Often a leaderboard’s usefulness comes down to intent, context, presentation and interpretation. Certain groups are naturally competitive, such as sales teams, so you do not need to worry about using a pure leaderboard. However, should you find that you are not getting the expected response from your implementation, consider making it non-competitive and see if you get better engagement that way – bring people together, rather than drive a wedge between them!

通常排行榜的有用性归结为意图、背景、表达和解释。某些群体天生就具有竞争力,比如销售团队,所以你不必担心使用纯粹的排行榜。然而,如果你发现你没有从你的实现中得到预期的响应,考虑让它不具有竞争性,看看你是否能通过这种方式得到更好的参与——把人们聚集在一起,而不是在他们之间制造隔阂!

Competition and Collaboration

竞争与合作

One of the most popular uses of enterprise gamification is to create competition. I don’t mean in the form of marketing campaigns, I am talking about internal competitions between employees. Sales leaderboards, fitness competitions, who is the most active on social media channels etc.

企业游戏化最流行的用途之一就是创造竞争。我说的不是营销活动,而是员工之间的内部竞争。销售排行榜,健身比赛,谁是社交媒体渠道最活跃的等等。

The thought process goes a bit like this. “If you are at the bottom of the leaderboard, you should be motivated to improve and prove you are as good as, if not better than, your peers.” It assumes that everyone is driven by winning. Actually, pitting people against each other does not always drive the best results; as we have seen, it can instead lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation 75.

思维过程大致如此。“如果你处于排行榜的底部,你应该有动力去提高自己,证明自己与同龄人一样优秀(如果不是更优秀的话)。”它假设每个人都被胜利所驱使。事实上,让人们互相竞争并不总是能带来最好的结果; 正如我们所看到的,它反而会导致内在动机的减少。

If we were to consider a traditional sales competition, the person with the most sales at the end of the month gets a bonus of some sort. What kind of behaviour does this promote?

如果我们考虑一个传统的销售竞争,在月底销售最多的人会得到某种奖金。这促进了什么样的行为?

From my experience, it promotes siloed and selfish working, where individuals work alone to ensure they have all the sales – at nearly any cost. Whilst this may not seem an issue, it creates divisions in teams and can lead to worse results. If Bill wants to get the win, he may try to get business that Ben is better suited to handle. Where Ben would probably have won the business, Bill loses it. No one wins, least of all the company.

根据我的经验,它促进了孤立和自私的工作,即个人独自工作,以确保他们拥有所有的销售——几乎不惜任何代价。虽然这看起来不是什么问题,但是它会导致团队的分裂,并且可能导致更糟糕的结果。如果比尔想获胜,他可能会试图让本更适合处理的业务。本来本可以赢得这笔生意,比尔却输了。没有人赢,尤其是整个公司。

If the company had cultivated a more collaborative environment, Bill would have had no reason to try to win the sale alone and would have passed the opportunity to Ben. This would have been the more team and company spirited thing to do.

如果公司营造了一个更加合作的环境,比尔就没有理由单独赢得这笔交易,而是把这个机会给了本。这将是一个更加团队和公司精神的事情去做。

Don’t look at success in business in terms of individual wins, look at how your people work best and encourage that – don’t force them to compete.

不要从个人成功的角度来看待商业上的成功,看看你的员工是如何工作的最好,并鼓励他们这样做——不要强迫他们去竞争。

There is a great deal of research out there about the effects of competition, how it is viewed by men and disadvantages women who are less interested in it 75,76, how it affects education 77 and more. Consider competition with care and be sure you understand the potential competitors!

关于竞争的影响,男人如何看待竞争,女人如何对竞争不感兴趣,竞争如何影响教育,已经有了大量的研究。谨慎考虑竞争,确保你了解潜在的竞争对手!

If you really want competition, you could try to create teams. This way you will nurture collaboration in the team, whilst keeping friendly competition against other teams. Think Harry Potter style houses!

如果你真的想要竞争,你可以尝试创建团队。这样你就可以培养团队中的合作精神,同时保持与其他团队的友好竞争。想想哈利波特风格的房子!

End Game/Game Over

游戏结束/游戏结束

There comes a point when a user may have earned every badge, found every Easter egg (hidden secrets), and achieved the highest rank possible. The hope is that by this time either the use of the system has finished, as with a short campaign, or they have found their intrinsic reason to continue using the system. However, that may not always be the case, so how do you keep this type of trivial layer system going a bit longer?

到了某个时候,用户可能已经获得了每个徽章,找到了每个复活节彩蛋(隐藏的秘密) ,并取得了可能的最高级别。我们希望,到这个时候,要么该系统的使用已经结束,如一个短期的活动,或他们已经找到了自己的内在原因,继续使用该系统。然而,情况可能并非总是如此,那么如何使这种类型的琐碎的层系统持续更长的时间呢?

The most elegant way I have seen of extending the life of a system like this comes from video games like Call of Duty. In this sort of game, you have a very similar trivial layer system on top of the main game. You get experience points, earn badges, and unlock new weapons and so on.

我所见过的最优雅的延长系统寿命的方法来自像使命召唤这样的视频游戏。在这种类型的游戏中,你在主游戏之上有一个非常类似的琐碎的图层系统。你可以获得经验积分,获得徽章,解锁新武器等等。

When you have achieved the highest rank the game offers, you are given a new choice, you can Prestige. This is essentially a voluntary reset of your scores and achievements. You get a new Prestige trophy, with a count of how many times you have done it to show others how advanced you are but must start going through the ranks and unlocking items and achievements again.

当你达到游戏提供的最高等级时,你会有一个新的选择,你可以拥有威望。这基本上是一个自愿重置你的分数和成就。你得到了一个新的威望奖杯,并计算你有多少次这样做是为了向别人展示你是多么的先进,但是你必须开始通过排名和解锁物品和成就。

Not everyone will do this, but for those who enjoy the collection aspect of the game, it gives them something to aim for again outside of the main gameplay.

不是每个人都会这么做,但是对于那些喜欢游戏的收集方面的人来说,它给了他们在主要游戏之外的目标。

Changing the Rules

改变规则

The needs of any project change as well as your understanding of those needs. This means that you may need to tweak the system from time to time. Add new badges, change the space between ranks, alter how many points activities are worth or add new activities. This is fine.

任何项目变更的需求以及你对这些需求的理解。这意味着您可能需要不时地调整系统。添加新的徽章,改变级别之间的空间,改变多少点活动值得或添加新的活动。这很好。

However, you must try as hard as possible to make sure these changes do not affect people’s current standings without a good explanation. In 2012, Klout (a social medial scoring platform that has since died) made a big change to its algorithm, which affected many people’s scores. Whilst it was beneficial to some, a significant number of people were very unhappy about the changes as their scores dropped 78. It is true that many people may not be all that bothered about earning rewards in your system – but as soon as you change the value of what they have earned or even worse, take it all away – they will certainly moan! Once earned, achievements of any sort should stay in the user’s trophy case forever! 

然而,你必须尽最大努力确保这些变化不会在没有一个好的解释的情况下影响人们目前的排名。2012年,Klout (一个已经死亡的社交媒体评分平台)对其算法进行了重大改动,影响了许多人的得分。虽然这对一些人有好处,但相当多的人对这些变化感到非常不满,因为他们的分数下降了78。的确,很多人可能不会为在你的系统中获得奖励而烦恼——但是一旦你改变了他们所获得的价值,甚至更糟糕的是,把它全部拿走——他们肯定会抱怨!一旦获得,任何种类的成就都应该永远留在用户的奖杯陈列柜里!

A Deep Dive into Badges (Geeks only!)

深入研究徽章(极客专用!)

What is a Badge?

什么是徽章?

A badge can have several functions. In this article, I am viewing them as some sort of award or reward. In this instance, they are a token that is either bestowed upon or earned by a person in recognition of actions or activities. It can come in many forms such as a digital badge, a patch, a trophy, a certificate, a medal more. I will be using badge as the standard term for all of these unless otherwise stated.

一个徽章可以有几个功能。在这篇文章中,我把它们看作是某种奖励或奖励。在这种情况下,它们是一种象征,是一个人为了认可某种行为或活动而赠予或获得的。它可以以多种形式出现,比如数字徽章、徽章、奖杯、证书、奖章等等。除非另有说明,否则我将使用徽章作为所有这些的标准术语。

A more important question than “What is a badge?”  is “What does a badge represent”, which we shall explore later.

一个比“什么是徽章?”更重要的问题“徽章代表什么”,我们将在后面探讨。

To begin, I want to explore what can make a badge meaningful and how we may categorise badges based on their meaning to the individual.

首先,我想探索什么能使徽章有意义,以及我们如何根据徽章对个人的意义对徽章进行分类。

Investment

投资

First, what kind of personal investment was required to earn the badge. Investment can be several things, time, money, effort etc.

首先,获得徽章需要什么样的个人投资。投资可以是几件事,时间,金钱,努力等等。

In the example of a medal for bravery, the investment was a willingness to act and accept the potential sacrifice because of that action.

在英勇勋章的例子中,投资是一种因为行动而愿意行动和接受潜在牺牲的意愿。

If we then consider another type of medal, that of a medal for winning a race, the athlete had to invest time and effort as well as a personal sacrifice to attain the level of expertise needed to win.

如果我们再考虑另一种类型的奖牌,赢得比赛的奖牌,运动员必须投入时间和精力以及个人牺牲,以达到获胜所需的专业水平。

Both have significant meaning to the recipient but required very different types of investment.

两者对接受者都有重要意义,但需要非常不同类型的投资。

However, it is possible to get a badge with no direct meaningful investment. For instance, being given a certificate of attendance at school. The likelihood is that the child who received it had no real influence on that and invested nothing more than being present where they were expected to be present. They just were not ill during the school year. A simpler example could be a badge of identity within a school. You are arbitrarily given a group that you belong to at the start of school, you have no influence on that. In this case, as I will expand on later, the badge may still be highly valued by the recipient, even if it is not immediate.

然而,在没有直接有意义的投资的情况下获得徽章是有可能的。例如,获得学校出勤证书。可能的情况是,接受这种教育的孩子对此没有真正的影响,他们所投入的仅仅是出现在他们应该出现的地方。他们只是在学年期间没有生病。一个更简单的例子就是学校里的身份标志。你在学校开始的时候被任意地分配到一个群体,你对这个群体没有任何影响力。在这种情况下,正如我将在后面进一步阐述的那样,这个徽章可能仍然被收件人高度重视,即使它不是即时的。

Expectation

期望

It is unlikely that the recipient of a medal for bravery undertook the activity that led to being awarded it, with the express expectation of being given a medal! They did not go around looking for opportunities to be brave! However, when someone enters a race, there is a much higher likelihood that winning the gold medal is on their mind, even just a little bit! If they win, they expect to get the medal.

英勇勋章的获得者不太可能参与导致获得该勋章的活动,并明确表示希望获得一枚勋章!他们没有到处寻找机会去勇敢!然而,当一个人参加比赛时,获得金牌的可能性很大,哪怕只是一点点!如果他们赢了,他们希望得到奖牌。

The same can be said of education. Whilst you may not be in education for the certificate of achievement, it is certainly an expectation once you have completed the education (for most). I can say with fair certainty that the majority of people who do a degree or a masters, don’t just do it for fun!

教育也是如此。虽然你可能不是为了获得成就证书而接受教育,但一旦你完成了教育(对大多数人来说) ,这当然是一种期望。我可以相当肯定地说,大多数获得学位或硕士学位的人,不仅仅是为了好玩!

There is an expectation that earning that degree will lead to greater things. However, a child that is given a certificate of achievement from the head teacher is unlikely to have been expecting it.

人们期望获得这个学位会带来更大的成就。然而,一个孩子从班主任那里获得了成绩证书,这是不可能的。

However, a child that is given a certificate of achievement from the head teacher is unlikely to have been expecting it but will value that reward highly due to what it represents for them, recognition of their effort during the year!

然而,一个从班主任那里获得成绩证书的孩子不太可能期望得到这样的奖励,但他会高度重视这样的奖励,因为这对他们来说意味着什么,对他们在这一年中所付出的努力的认可!

Social or Individual

社会或个人

For our purposes and within the context of badges as awards or rewards, they can also be considered as individual or social. For instance, they may recognise a personal achievement, or acknowledge a particular action such as the case of a certificate of achievement. This is an individual achievement, although you could also say it might carry an indirect level of social status with it.

为了我们的目的,在徽章作为奖励或奖励的背景下,他们也可以被视为个人或社会。例如,他们可能承认个人的成就,或者承认一个特定的行为,例如成就证书。这是一个个人的成就,尽管你也可以说它可能带有一种间接的社会地位。

In a more social setting, a badge may represent a person’s group identity, for example, your team at school or your regiment in the army. It may identify you as a Marvel fan rather than a D.C. fan.  

在更多的社交场合,徽章可能代表一个人的群体身份,例如,你在学校的团队或者你在军队的团队。它可能认为你是一个惊奇的粉丝,而不是一个华盛顿的粉丝。

As well as your group identity, a badge can also identify your status within a group such as military rank insignia.

除了你的团队身份,一个徽章也可以识别你在团队中的地位,比如军衔徽章。

Four Basic Categories

四个基本类别

To simplify things a little I will now speak of badges in 4 basic categories; Acknowledgement, Achievement, Identity and Status and will consider them as either being implicitly earned (not deliberately) or explicitly (deliberate and/or expected as an outcome of the activity).

为了简化事情,我现在将徽章分为四个基本类别: 承认、成就、身份和地位,并将它们视为默示获得(不是故意的)或明示获得(故意和/或期望作为活动的结果)。

So that is a bit about what badges are, but what do they represent? What does a badge mean?

这里有一点关于徽章是什么,但是它们代表什么? 徽章是什么意思?

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 41 4 Categories of Reward Badges

图414奖励徽章类别

What Does a Badge Mean?

徽章意味着什么?

A lot of the time when we speak about rewards, we talk about the most meaningful ones being those that require some form of investment in earning. This is, for the most part true. That medal for winning a race, an achievement type badge, holds special meaning and required a lot of investment, the medal for bravery, an acknowledgment type badge, would hold significant meaning for the person who earned it based on their actions, even if it was not a deliberate attempt to earn a medal. Both hold a strong emotional attachment.

很多时候,当我们谈论奖励时,我们谈论的最有意义的奖励是那些需要某种形式的收入投资。这在很大程度上是正确的。赢得比赛的奖章—- 成就型徽章—- 具有特殊的意义,需要大量的投资—- 勇气勋章,一个认可型徽章,对于那些因为自己的行为而获得奖章的人来说具有重要的意义,即使这并不是故意为了获得奖章。两者都有很强的情感依恋。

However, the child that got an attendance certificate for just not being ill during the year probably, has no emotional attachment to the certificate at all. They did nothing to earn it and it holds no intrinsic or extrinsic value!

然而,那些在一年中仅仅因为没有生病而获得出勤证书的孩子,对证书没有任何感情上的依恋。他们没有做任何事情来获得它,它没有任何内在或外在价值!

By that notion, a badge representing one’s house within a school, a badge of social identity, should hold no significant emotional attachment or meaning, after all, it was an arbitrary label managed by the school. At first, this may well be true. However, over time you may well begin to attribute pride to being in that house, acting in ways that better the status of the house. It may also have a deeper meaning if one of your parents or siblings was/is in the same house. Then you may get some deferred sense of pride. Just think of how much Harry Potter wanted to be in Gryffindor!

按照这种观念,一个代表学校里的房子的徽章,一个社会身份的徽章,应该没有明显的情感依恋或意义—- 毕竟,这是一个由学校管理的武断的标签。首先,这可能是真的。然而,随着时间的推移,你可能会开始把自豪归因于待在那个房子里,以更好的方式行事。如果你的父母或兄弟姐妹中有一个曾经/现在在同一所房子里,这也可能有更深层的意义。然后你可能会得到一些延迟的自豪感。想想哈利波特多么想进格兰芬多啊!

The reason identity is included in a conversation about awards and rewards is because some identity does have to be earned. 

身份之所以会出现在关于奖励和奖励的讨论中,是因为有些身份确实需要获得。

A simple example is that of my daughter joining Guides. She had to prove herself before she could make her promise and earn her promise badge. That badge allows her to show the world that she is a Girl Guide.  You see this in the army as well of course, with people earning the right to identify with particular regiments after training etc. That makes the badge special, it makes it something that only a specific group of people can say they have earned, it makes it rare.

一个简单的例子是我的女儿加入了指南。她必须先证明自己,然后才能做出承诺并赢得承诺徽章。这个徽章让她向世界展示她是一个女孩向导。当然,你在军队中也可以看到这一点,人们在受过训练后有权认同某个团。这使得这个徽章很特别,只有特定的一群人才能说他们已经赢得了这个徽章,这使得这个徽章很稀有。

From there, they will earn other badges of achievement, acknowledgment and of course status.

从那里,他们将获得其他成就、认可和地位的徽章。

This neatly brings me to badges that represent status. Within a social group, such as the army, badges can represent one’s status amongst their peers and other groups. Each new badge represents a new level of status. Of course, that sort of status is hard earned and should not be compared to earning the “I clicked like 100 times” badge in a gamified system!

这让我想到了代表地位的徽章。在一个社会群体中,比如军队,徽章可以代表一个人在同龄人和其他群体中的地位。每一个新的徽章代表一个新的地位水平。当然,这种地位是很难得到的,不应该与在游戏化系统中获得“我点击了100次”徽章相提并论!

An example of this kind of earned status can be seen in the tech forum Stack Exchange. Here people earn status by answering questions and being considered helpful and an expert in their field. It takes time, dedication and expertise to earn this level of status and so can be very meaningful to those individuals. You must be very careful though that any system employing these kinds of status driven badges does not fall into the trap of elitism!

在技术论坛 Stack Exchange 中可以看到这种赢得状态的一个例子。在这里,人们通过回答问题和被认为是有帮助的和在他们的领域的专家来获得地位。要获得这种地位需要时间、奉献精神和专业知识,因此对这些人来说非常有意义。你必须非常小心,任何使用这种地位驱动徽章的系统不会陷入精英主义的陷阱!

Quick Summary

快速摘要

  • Achievement: Awarded for an explicit action, such as winning a race. Expected!

成就: 获得一个明确的行动,如赢得一场比赛。预期!

  • Acknowledgment: Awarded for an implicit action, such as being brave under pressure. Unexpected.

感谢: 表扬一种含蓄的行为,例如在压力下勇敢。出人意料。

  • Identity: Given as a sign of belonging to a group or faction, such as house badges in school. Given.

身份: 作为属于一个团体或派别的标志,如学校的徽章。

  • Status: Given to represent ones standing among peers, such as girl guide promise badge or military rank insignia. Earned.

身份: 被赋予代表一个站在同行中的人,如女童军承诺徽章或军衔徽章。挣得。

What Does It All Mean?

这一切意味着什么?

For you, as a designer, you must ask yourself one question when designing badges. “What will this mean to my user?” If you think about the badge you have created, what do you see the user reaction being when they are first awarded it. Will they go “Yes, nice one!” or “Hah, that’s pretty cool.” or will they just go “urm, ok then?” Then, consider what they will say when they look at that badge in a month’s time? Will it be “Oh yes, I am so proud I got that” or will it be “WTF? Why did I get that again?” What will be most important to your user and your system?

对你来说,作为一个设计师,在设计徽章时你必须问自己一个问题。“这对我的用户意味着什么?”如果你想想你创造的徽章,当他们第一次被授予徽章时,你会看到用户的反应是什么。他们会说: “是的,漂亮!”或者“哈,这太酷了”还是他们会说“ urm,ok then?”然后,想想他们在一个月后看到这个徽章时会说什么?它会是“哦,是的,我很骄傲我得到了它”还是“卧槽”?为什么我又得了那个病?”什么对你的用户和你的系统最重要?

Back to our medal analogy. If you earned the medal, it will have great emotional meaning for you. When you look at it, you will relive the moment of pride you felt at receiving it. However, if you just got the medal on eBay as part of an effort to fill a hole in your collection, you would not get the same emotional attachment, it would be hollow and meaningless.

回到我们的奖牌类比。如果你赢得了这枚奖牌,它将对你产生巨大的情感意义。当你看着它的时候,你会再次体验到那种因得到它而感到自豪的时刻。然而,如果你只是为了填补收藏品中的一个空洞而在 eBay 上获得奖牌,你就不会得到同样的情感依恋,这将是空洞和毫无意义的。

This has been labelled the Trophy Effect 79, an unofficial subset of the more researched and accepted Endowment Effect 80. Earning something gives it a higher value than just being given something or getting it without real effort. You may be happy that you completed the collection, but the medal would hold no real significance compared to the connection the original owner had to it.

这被称为奖杯效应79,一个非官方的子集更多的研究和接受禀赋效应80。获得一些东西比仅仅得到一些东西或者没有付出真正的努力就得到它要有更高的价值。你可能会很高兴你完成了这个收藏,但是这个奖牌和最初拥有者与它的联系相比没有什么实际意义。

If you look at my BMEM 如果你看我的 BMEM framework later, emotions are considered before mechanics, so they are certainly something that should be considered before designing badges. What do you want people to feel? If you just want a short shot of adrenaline in the arm of the user, then sure a badge for clicking like 100 times may well be enough. 后来的框架,情感是考虑之前的机制,所以他们当然是一些应该考虑之前设计徽章。你想让人们感受到什么?如果你只是想在用户的手臂上打一针肾上腺素,那么确保一个徽章点击100次就足够了

Badges can serve many functions in a system beyond what I have mentioned. There was some great research on how badges can be used in a social media setting that identified 5 categories 81:

徽章可以在一个系统中发挥很多功能,这些功能超出了我所提到的。关于如何在社交媒体环境中使用徽章有一些很棒的研究,分为5类81:

  • Goal Setting 目标设定
  • Instruction 指示
  • Reputation 声誉
  • Status / Affirmation 身分/确认书
  • Group Identification 群体识别

Other research has highlighted that immediate rewards, such as badges in a system, are a good predictor of adherence to long term goals 82.

其他研究也强调了即时奖励,比如系统中的徽章,是坚持长期目标的良好预测器。

People primarily pursue long-term goals, such as exercising, to receive delayed rewards (e.g., improved health). However, we find that the presence of immediate rewards is a stronger predictor of persistence in goal-related activities than the presence of delayed rewards.

人们主要追求长期目标,如锻炼,以获得延迟的奖励(如改善健康)。然而,我们发现即时回报的存在比延迟回报的存在更能预测目标相关活动中的持续性。

This is reinforced by other research that highlights that focusing on a long term goal or reward can get you started, it can also reduce your intrinsic motivation if that is your core focus, emphasising the importance of badges and rewards as a function of goal setting 83.

其他研究也强调了这一点,强调关注长期目标或奖励可以让你开始,如果这是你的核心目标,它也可以减少你的内在动机,强调徽章和奖励的重要性作为目标设定的功能83。

Another use for badges can be seen in nostalgia and autobiographical memory, where remembering past positive experiences can induce similar feelings, later on, reliving strong emotional experiences 84. A badge or reward can be used as “physical” reminder of this helping to lead to echoed feelings of achievement, pride or satisfaction all over again, especially when those associated “autobiographical” memories can be linked to goal attainment. This gives badges potential to be powerful reminders and boosters if they are created well 84.

徽章的另一个用途可以在怀旧和自传性记忆中看到,在那里回忆过去积极的经历可以诱发类似的感觉,随后,重新体验强烈的情感体验。一个徽章或奖励可以用来作为“实际”的提醒,提醒自己这有助于再次产生成就感、自豪感或满足感,特别是当这些相关的“自传式”记忆可以与目标实现联系起来时。这使得徽章有潜力成为强有力的提醒和支持者,如果他们被创建良好84。

If you want your badges to be better than badgers and want to foster continued engagement and an emotional attachment, think broader about the intended functions/mechanisms of badges and try harder!

如果你希望你的徽章比獾更好,并且希望培养持续的参与感和情感依恋,那么请更广泛地思考徽章的预期功能/机制,并更加努力地尝试!

 

How to Set Clear Goals 如何设定明确的目标

 

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I have goals and, for reasons this chapter will explain, I have short-term and long-term goals. The short-term goals are easy for me to focus on, each success brings me one step closer to my ultimate goal, which my Master will discover soon enough.

我有自己的目标,出于本章将要解释的原因,我有短期和长期的目标。短期目标对我来说很容易集中注意力,每一次成功都使我离我的终极目标更近了一步,我的主人很快就会发现的。

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成

Goal Setting

目标设定

One of the great things about games is how they handle objectives. Very rarely will you play a game these days that sets out one huge objective and just leaves you to it; they all break the main objective into sub-objectives.

游戏的一个伟大之处在于他们如何处理目标。这些天你很少会玩一个设定了一个巨大目标却只让你去实现它的游戏; 他们都会把主要目标分解成次要目标。

You tend to have an overall story line or a quest. This is then broken down into levels, missions or sub-quests. These are then further broken down into objectives, goals or tasks.

你倾向于有一个完整的故事情节或者一个任务。这是然后分解成级,任务或子任务。然后再进一步细分为目标、目标或任务。

One of the main reasons for this is that it is much easier for us to focus on and manage short-term goals than long-term goals. This can be attributed to how we process data, how our memories work, how we handle decisions etc.

其中一个主要原因是,我们更容易关注和管理短期目标,而不是长期目标。这可以归因于我们如何处理数据,我们的记忆如何工作,我们如何处理决策等等。

There is a theory about the effect of time on how we perceive the importance of actions and events called Construal Level Theory 85.

有一个关于时间对我们如何感知行为和事件重要性的影响的理论叫做解释水平理论85。

The basic idea is that events that are about to happen are perceived as concrete in our mind. It is easy to visualise them and work on them. Distant events are perceived as abstractthey are much harder for us to give urgency or importance to because they feel less real.

其基本思想是,即将发生的事件在我们的头脑中被认为是具体的。我们可以很容易地想象它们,并在其上工作。遥远的事件被认为是抽象的,它们对我们来说更难赋予紧迫感或重要性,因为它们感觉不那么真实。

Consider preparation for exams. Several months before an exam, studying seems less urgent – the exam is an abstract concept to us – it is not here, so is not quite real. As we get closer to the exam, studying may start to get more important.

考虑考试前的准备。考试前的几个月,学习似乎不那么紧迫了——考试对我们来说是一个抽象的概念——它不在这里,所以也不那么真实。随着考试的临近,学习可能会变得越来越重要。

The day of the exam, it is very real, and you start to wish you had been studying for the last few months after all!

考试的那一天,是非常真实的,你开始希望你已经学习了最后几个月毕竟!

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 42 Perceived Importance Over Time

图42随着时间的推移感知到的重要性

What this means to us in gamification, is that long-term or large goals and objectives are hard for us to manage properly; they seem unattainable. Short-term or small goals are closer to the now and so feel more attainable.

在游戏化过程中,这对我们来说意味着,长期或大的目标对我们来说很难管理; 它们似乎是无法实现的。短期或小目标更接近现在,因此感觉更容易实现。

From a purely human perspective, actions that are far away, very large in perceived scale or just plain hard to do, can be intimidating.

从纯粹人类的角度来看,那些相距遥远、规模巨大或者仅仅是难以做到的行为,可能会令人望而生畏。

The way games handle this is by breaking activities and goals down into smaller lumps. The larger or more complex the task the more sections you may need to break it into, up to a point. Figure 43 gives a feel for how this might look. Notice that there will come a point where it would be unhelpful to continue to break the objectives down further. You should also consider exactly what makes the objective is so complex and try to simplify it!

游戏处理这个问题的方法是把活动和目标分解成小块。任务越大或者越复杂,在一定程度上,你可能需要把它分解成更多的部分。图43给出了可能的感觉。请注意,将会到达一个临界点,在这个临界点上,继续进一步分解目标是无益的。你还应该考虑到底是什么使目标如此复杂,并尽量简化它!

图表, 折线图

描述已自动生成

Figure 43 Object Complexity vs Number of Sub-Objectives

图43对象复杂度与子目标数量

Take an everyday educational example. Counting. You do not just tell a child to count to 100; you get them to count to 5, then 10, then 20 and so on. Times tables. You start with the easy stuff like 2 times tables, 5 times tables, 10 times tables then move onto the 9s and 12s.

举一个日常教育的例子。数数。你不能只是告诉孩子数到100; 你要让他们数到5,然后10,然后20,以此类推。乘法表。你从简单的东西开始,比如2个乘法表,5个乘法表,10个乘法表,然后转移到9和12。

A more practical example, that many of you have probably come across, is the humble form or questionnaire. When you are presented with 100, questions that cover everything from your name to your inside leg measurement – it can be rather off-putting.

一个更实际的例子,你们中的许多人可能都遇到过,是谦虚的形式或调查问卷。当你面对100个问题的时候,从你的名字到你的内腿尺寸,这些问题包罗万象——这可能会让你很不舒服。

Instead, how about presenting 10 pages of 10 questions, possibly even over time rather than in one sitting? Add a progress bar that shows how far into the survey you are, then a simple save system. That way, people are only seeing 10 questions, a much more manageable number.

相反,如何呈现10页的10个问题,甚至可能随着时间的推移,而不是在一个坐?添加一个进度条,显示你进入调查的距离,然后是一个简单的保存系统。这样,人们只会看到10个问题,这个数字更容易处理。

The progress bar lets them know they are making, well, progress. The save option lets them know that you care about their time and are happy for them to fill the form in how and when they want!

进度条让他们知道他们正在进步。保存选项让他们知道你关心他们的时间,并且很高兴他们能够在他们需要的时间和地点填写表格!

In summary: 总而言之:

  • Big tasks/Long term goals = scary

大任务/长期目标 = 可怕

  • Small tasks/Short term goals = manageable

小任务/短期目标 = 易于管理

Focused Feedback

重点反馈

Feedback is essential for engagement in anything we do, which I will go into more detail about later. However, whether it is related to our job, social life or hobbies, without feedback, we don’t know where we, how we are doing or where we are going. Not having feedback is like driving without seeing the road or a map!

反馈对于参与我们所做的任何事情都是必不可少的,我将在后面详细讨论。然而,无论是与我们的工作、社交生活还是爱好有关,没有反馈,我们不知道我们在哪里,我们在做什么,我们要去哪里。没有反馈就像开车没有看到路或地图!

Good feedback focuses specifically on the needs of the user and is Relevant, In-Time and Meaningful. I will go into this in more detail later. The core is that feedback does not need to immediate but does need to provide value to the user at a time that lets the user act on it. Feedback comes in many shapes and sizes, from physical rewards to verbal pats on the back to progress bars. However, the main types to consider are notification of successfailure and general progress.

好的反馈专门针对用户的需求,是相关的、及时的、有意义的。我稍后将更详细地讨论这个问题。其核心是,反馈不需要立即进行,但确实需要在让用户采取行动的时候向用户提供价值。反馈有很多种形式和大小,从身体上的奖励到言语上的鼓励,再到进度条。然而,要考虑的主要类型是成功、失败和总体进展的通知。

The crux is, you are keeping the user informed to enable them to take responsibility for what they do next and how they do it.

问题的关键在于,你要让用户知道,以便他们能够为下一步做什么以及如何做负责。

Attainable, Maintainable Goals

可达到的,可维护的目标

Goals are hugely important to us as we try to achieve the things we want to achieve, but it is important to understand how to set them! There are many methods out there, I particularly used to like SMART goals (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-Bound) 86. However, a simple way to look at your goals are “Are they attainable and are they maintainable?”

目标对我们来说是非常重要的,因为我们试图实现我们想要实现的东西,但重要的是了解如何设定它们!有很多方法,我特别喜欢明智的目标(具体的,可衡量的,可实现的,相关的,有时限的)86。然而,一个简单的方法来看待你的目标是“它们是否可以实现,是否可以维护?”

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 44 Focused Feedback and Goals

图44重点反馈和目标

Attainable

可达到的

As mentioned, if your goal is too big or set too far into the future, it can be very hard to prioritise it. When creating goals, you should have in mind the overall goal, but also smaller more attainable goals. If you have a yearlong plan, break it down into months, weeks and days.

正如前面提到的,如果你的目标太大或者设定的太远,那么很难优先实现它。当你制定目标时,你应该考虑到整体目标,但也应该考虑到更小、更容易实现的目标。如果你有一个为期一年的计划,把它分解成几个月,几个星期和几天。

Maintainable

可维护性

You need to balance how small the goals are between your ability to keep achieving/maintaining them and how practical they are as a way to achieve the overall goal. If you make them too small, it becomes hard to do enough of them to achieve the main goal. Too big, and they become unattainable again. This leads to becoming demoralised.

你需要平衡目标的小小程度,一方面是你持续实现/维持它们的能力,另一方面是它们作为实现总体目标的一种方式的实用程度。如果你把它们做得太小,就很难做到足够多来实现主要目标。太大了,它们就会变得难以企及。这导致了士气低落。

A good example is my wife. Whilst writing a book, she set herself a daily word count she had to achieve, to get to her end of year goal. However, life got in the way, as it does, and the goals become unmaintainable and unattainable! She got very demoralised, often falling short of daily or monthly goals. Every day she was unable to write, the end goal got exponentially further away. Her solution? Lower the daily word count a bit, without significantly changing the potential delivery date of the end goal.

我妻子就是一个很好的例子。在写书的时候,她给自己设定了一个每天必须完成的字数,以达到年终目标。然而,生活阻碍了我们,我们的目标变得难以维护,难以实现!她变得非常沮丧,经常达不到每天或每月的目标。每一天,她都不能写作,最终的目标却越来越远。她的解决方案是什么?稍微降低每天的字数,而不显著改变最终目标的潜在交付日期。

This left her with a much more attainable set of goals, that she could not only achieve but overachieve on from time to time. You can see on the next page her 2016 word count vs 2017. Up until February 2017, the daily count was 250 words. In March, she changed it to 150!

这给她留下了一个更容易实现的目标,她不仅可以实现,而且时不时地过度实现。你可以在下一页看到她2016年的字数与2017年的对比。截至2017年2月,每日统计量为250字。三月份,她把它改成了150!

The result is a much happier and more motivated writer!

其结果是一个更快乐和更积极的作家!

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 45 Before Attainable Goals 图45可实现的目标

    Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 46 After Attainable Goals 图46可实现的目标

Adding them Together

把它们加在一起

When you mix feedback into your goal strategy, you suddenly have a very powerful motivational tool. You can set feedback for each stage of each goal, positive notes to say well done for hitting a weekly goal, gentle chastisements for missing them. Bigger rewards (like a team meal) for hitting more significant milestones. Daily updates on a progress chart to show you and your team where you are compared to where you need to be.

当你把反馈和你的目标策略混合在一起时,你突然拥有了一个非常强大的激励工具。你可以为每个目标的每个阶段设置反馈,积极的说明,说你完成了每周的目标,温和的惩罚错过了他们。完成更重要的里程碑会得到更大的奖励(比如团队聚餐)。每天更新一个进度表,向你和你的团队展示你们所处的位置和你们需要的位置。

Simple changes can have a profound impact on motivation, engagement and productivity!

简单的改变可以对动机、参与度和生产力产生深远的影响!

 

“Don’t create unrealistic expectations, create achievable goals!”

“不要制造不切实际的期望,要制定可实现的目标!”

How to Design Good Feedback and Reward Systems

如何设计好的反馈和奖励系统

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

My Master keeps preaching that rewards should be Relevant, In Time and Meaningful. As good as he is at doing this for others, I am yet to see my rewards.

我的主人一直在说,奖励应该是相关的,及时的,有意义的。尽管他善于为别人做这件事,但我还没有看到我的回报。

 

As mentioned, rewards are a form of feedback. In gamification, feedback is one of the keys to making a system useful, without it, the user has no way of knowing what is happening.

如前所述,奖励是一种反馈形式。在游戏化中,反馈是使系统有用的关键之一,没有反馈,用户就无法知道正在发生什么。

Feedback is anything that gives a user some understanding of progress and achievement. This can be something as simple as a message that says, “You have completed the survey”, to a full virtual economy working with points, badges, levels, leaderboards, trading, prizes etc. They are all just there to keep the user informed.

反馈是任何能够让用户了解进步和成就的东西。这可以是一个简单的信息,说,“你已经完成了调查”,到一个完整的虚拟经济与积分,徽章,水平,排行榜,交易,奖品等工作。它们都只是为了让用户了解情况而存在的。

Games provide feedback very effectively. They reward with points, unlock controlled areas, provide powerups and more – all to help the player feel that they have achieved something. Although it isn’t the feedback that keeps them playing, it does help to give some level of context to their progress and increasing ability at the game. Playing a game like Super Mario without any kind of feedback as you progressed, would be very boring indeed.

游戏提供了非常有效的反馈。他们奖励与点数,解锁控制区域,提供升级和更多-所有帮助球员觉得他们已经取得了一些成就。虽然不是反馈让他们一直玩下去,但它确实有助于给他们的进步和游戏能力的提高提供一定程度的背景。在没有任何反馈的情况下玩像超级马里奥这样的游戏,确实很无聊。

We can learn from this and apply it to gamification.

我们可以从中吸取教训,并将其应用到游戏化中。

I am convinced there are three important aspects that need to be considered when designing feedback and rewards for any system.

我相信在为任何系统设计反馈和奖励时,有三个重要的方面需要考虑。

Rewards and feedback should be: 奖励和反馈应该是:

Relevant, In Time and Meaningful (RIM).

相关的,及时的和有意义的(RIM)。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 47 Rewards and Feedback 图47奖励和反馈

Relevant

相关资料

The feedback needs to be relevant to and in context with the activity. If the user is just being asked to tick a box – is it relevant to send them a certificate of achievement by post? Would it not be more relevant to have a little “thank you” message or to assign points commensurate to the behaviour or activity?

反馈需要与活动相关并与活动相关联。如果用户只是被要求勾选一个方框——通过邮寄给他们一个成就证书是否相关?对行为或活动表示一点”谢谢”或指定相应的分数,难道不更有意义吗?

In-Time

及时

Does the feedback need to be instantaneous, or can it wait? For instance, in a game, players get several types of feedback. When a jump is mistimed, the player dies.

反馈必须是即时的,还是可以等待?例如,在一个游戏中,玩家会得到几种类型的反馈。如果跳跃时机不对,玩家就会死亡。

The feedback is immediate, and it must be! If the player gains experience, the game often notifies them on screen. This is what I called continuous contextual performance feedback earlier

反馈是即时的,而且必须是即时的!如果玩家获得了经验,游戏通常会在屏幕上通知他们。这就是我之前所说的持续上下文绩效反馈

However, in the middle of a frantic battle, is that of use? A sudden message flashing up may be just distracting enough to get the player killed! It would surely be better to wait a moment until the fighting has died down a little, and then give the feedback. That, or wait until the level has ended and then give the feedback as part of a summary.

然而,在一场疯狂的战斗中,这是有用的吗?一个突然闪现的信息可能会让玩家分心,从而导致他被杀!当然,最好是等到战斗稍微平息下来,然后再给出反馈。或者等到这个层次结束,然后作为总结的一部分给出反馈。

In gamification, this could be viewed as using a monthly leaderboard rather than an hourly one. If people are not going to be checking hourly, why feedback hourly? Judge the best and most impactful time to give feedback and rewards.

在游戏化中,这可以被看作是使用月度排行榜而不是每小时排行榜。如果人们不会每小时检查一次,为什么每小时都要反馈呢?判断给予反馈和奖励的最佳和最有效的时间。

Meaningful

有意义

This is the most important category for me as in my experience this is where many gamified systems I have seen fall short. Many systems seem to reward almost every action the user takes, no matter how trivial it may be. Clicking start, registering, logging in and so on. Soon you have given the user awards and badges for everything they have done. They become meaningless very fast due to requiring no effort on the part of the user to achieve!

这对我来说是最重要的一类,因为根据我的经验,这是我所见过的许多游戏化系统的不足之处。许多系统似乎对用户采取的几乎每一个行动都给予奖励,不管这些行动多么微不足道。点击开始,注册,登录等等。很快你就会为用户所做的一切颁发奖章和徽章。它们很快就变得毫无意义,因为它们不需要用户付出任何努力就可以实现!

Use feedback and especially rewards to celebrate and record actual achievement. Then it provides meaning to the user. If everyone can have the “I clicked like 10 times” badge, it means nothing. However, the “I just scored 100% on my exam” badge is harder to get.

使用反馈,尤其是奖励来庆祝和记录实际成就。然后它为用户提供意义。如果每个人都可以拥有“我点击了10次”的徽章,那就毫无意义了。然而,“我考试得了100分”徽章却很难得到。

If you then make that reward transferable to real life, it can have even more meaning to them. Maybe that badge gets them priority ticket allocation to see their favourite band.

如果你让这种奖励可以转移到现实生活中,它对他们来说就更有意义了。也许这个徽章能让他们获得优先票分配去看他们最喜欢的乐队。

My mantra for using rewards is always Recognise don’t bribe. If you are using rewards, they should celebrate the achievement, not be the achievement. Think of them as a virtual pat on the back. Whenever I hear of incentive programs, all I hear is bribery!

我使用奖励的口头禅总是承认不贿赂。如果你使用奖励,他们应该庆祝成就,而不是成就。把他们想象成一个虚拟的鼓励。每当我听到奖励计划,我听到的都是贿赂!

Reward Quality Over Quantity

重质轻量

As we can see, it is relatively easy to gain quantity with a points-based system, but how can you drive quality?

正如我们所看到的,使用基于分数的系统获取数量相对容易,但是如何才能提高质量呢?

When you build a gamified campaign or activity, you need to consider what quality participation looks like. If for instance you want to create some buzz around a new product and you decide to create a simple Twitter competition, are you looking for the number of people who tweet or are you looking for the number of people the message reaches?

当你建立一个游戏化的活动时,你需要考虑什么是高质量的参与。举个例子,如果你想创造一些关于新产品的话题,并且你决定创造一个简单的 Twitter 竞赛,你是在寻找发推的人数还是你在寻找信息到达的人数?

If you are looking for reach, how do you reward behaviours that lead to better reach? What on Twitter leads to better reach? The easy mistake to make is to set up a very simple system that rewards each tweet of your message. After that, the user with the most points wins a nice prize.

如果你正在寻找触及,你如何奖励行为,导致更好的触及?在 Twitter 上什么能让你更容易接触到他人?一个很容易犯的错误就是建立一个非常简单的系统来奖励你发送的每条信息。在此之后,得分最多的用户将获得一个不错的奖品。

Let’s set up the competition.

让我们开始比赛吧。

Twitter Competition Version 1 推特比赛第一版

Action 行动

Reward 奖励

Tweet Message 推特信息

10pt 10点

If an individual with 50 followers tweets your message they get 10 points and will reach 50 people. If they had 10,000 followers, they would still get 10 points but would reach 10,000 followers. In reality, the second scenario is preferable for you because there is a greater opportunity for your message to be seen by more people, yet both cases are perceived to be assigned the same value.

如果一个拥有50个关注者的用户发布你的信息,他会得到10分,并且会达到50人。如果他们有10000个关注者,他们仍然会得到10分,但会达到10000个关注者。事实上,第二种情况更适合你,因为你的信息有更大的机会被更多的人看到,但是这两种情况被认为被赋予了同样的价值。

Now, if we add an extra dimension, rewarding reach rather than just number of tweets. For starters, we reward retweets as well as tweets. As a tweet is retweeted, the value of that original user becomes amplified. Whilst they may only reach 50 people, one of those 50 may be highly engaged and have 5,000 of their own followers who will see the message. The retweet is of greater value than the original tweet – so should have a higher reward, say 20 points.

现在,如果我们增加一个额外的维度,奖励达到而不仅仅是推特的数量。首先,我们奖励推特和推特。一条推文被转发,原始用户的价值就被放大了。虽然他们可能只能接触到50个人,但这50个人中的一个可能高度参与,并且有5000个他们自己的关注者会看到这条信息。转发的内容比原始的更有价值,所以应该有更高的奖励,比如说20分。

Twitter Competition Version 2 推特比赛第二版

Action 行动

Reward 奖励

Tweet Message 推特信息

10pt 10点

Receive Retweet 收到回复

20pt 20点

There is a second value to this; it is harder to game. If we just reward quantity of tweets then the person who wants the prize the most will just tweet, tweet, tweet, and keep earning those 10 points. One way to handle this is to limit the number of tweets that count per day, put the focus on retweets and other measures of engagement and reach.

这里还有第二个价值,这是很难博弈的。如果我们只奖励推特的数量,那么最想得到奖励的人就会推特、推特、推特,并继续获得这10分。处理这个问题的一个方法是限制每天推文的数量,把重点放在转发和其他衡量参与度和接触程度的方法上。

Twitter Competition Version 3 推特比赛第三版

Action 行动

Reward 奖励

Max pt per Day 每日最多摄氏度

Tweet Message 推特信息

10pt 10点

20

Receive Retweet 收到回复

20pt 20点

Unlimited 无限

We are beginning to reward quality over quantity. What we have so far is probably fine for most small-scale usage. Reward the quality, not the quantity. Don’t reward spammers!

我们开始重质轻量了。到目前为止,我们所拥有的对于大多数小规模的使用来说可能还不错。奖励质量,而不是数量。不要奖励垃圾邮件发送者!

However, there is still an issue. Let’s go back to our user with 50 followers. If we limit their ability to earn lots of points with just tweets and we know they will struggle to get the level of retweets that someone with 10,000 followers will likely get, how do we make it fair on them and show them that they have just as much chance to win as others?

然而,仍然存在一个问题。让我们回到我们有50个追随者的用户。如果我们限制他们仅仅通过推特获得大量分数的能力,我们知道他们将很难获得一个拥有10,000粉丝的人可能获得的转发量,我们如何公平地对待他们,并向他们展示他们和其他人一样有获胜的机会?

Really, you want everyone involved – because you never know who the “important” users are. If one of those 50 followers is a potential purchaser, they are more important than 10,000 non-potential purchasers!

事实上,你希望每个人都参与进来——因为你永远不知道谁是“重要的”用户。如果这50个追随者中有一个是潜在买家,他们比10,000个非潜在买家更重要!

For a larger scale campaign, we probably want to take this all a step further. If we want everyone to feel that his or her contribution is valued, we need to create some kind of algorithm that produces a more balanced score.

对于一个更大规模的活动,我们可能需要更进一步。如果我们想让每个人都觉得他或她的贡献是有价值的,我们需要创建某种算法来产生一个更平衡的分数。

One suggestion would be to create a ratio of retweets to the number of followers. The idea is that the number of retweets you get if you have 50 followers giving you a couple of retweets can be comparable to a user with 10,000 followers getting dozens of retweets.

一个建议是创建一个转发量与关注者数量的比例。这个想法是,如果你有50个追随者给你一对夫妇的转发,你得到的转发数量可以与一个拥有10,000个追随者得到几十个转发的用户相媲美。

This gives us 这给了我们

  • Tweet triggers your entry into the “game”

推特触发你进入“游戏”

  • Score = Number of retweets/number of followers

分数 = 转发数量/关注者数量

We can expand on this quite a lot by looking at the number of favourites and the number of replies a tweet gets as well. I stumbled across a formula from Unmetric 87 that does just this:

我们可以通过观察收藏的数量和回复的数量来扩展这一点。我偶然发现了一个来自 Unmetric 87的公式,它就是这么做的:

 (No. of Favourites + (5 × No. of Replies) + (10 × No. of Retweets)) × 10000(收件人数 + (5 × 回复数) + (10 × 转发数) × 10000
_________________________________________ 最后,我们还是决定继续走下去

No. of Followers * 0.8 追随者人数 * 0.8  

You need to consider those who have very few tweets and retweets – as their ratio may be quite high. It is all a balancing act – and it really is not easy! The upshot of all of this is that you need to stop rewarding the wrong activities. If you make the reward greater for the simple low-quality actions, you will encourage quantity over quality and that is very rarely what you want.

你需要考虑那些推特和转发很少的人,因为他们的比例可能相当高。这完全是一个平衡的过程——而且真的不容易!所有这一切的结果是,你需要停止奖励错误的活动。如果你让简单的低质量行为获得更大的回报,你会鼓励数量多于质量,而这很少是你想要的。

These examples are still rewarding quantity, but it is still of more value to you than just the basic number of tweets.

这些例子仍然是有价值的数量,但它对你来说仍然比基本的 tweets 数量更有价值。

Challenge, Feedback, Reward Cycle

挑战,反馈,奖励循环

As I read more and more about what makes a game a game, it becomes clearer and clearer where gamification designs can and do go wrong. As I have pointed out previously, gamification and games are not the same things, but they do share similar qualities.

随着我越来越多地了解到什么使游戏成为一个游戏,我越来越清楚游戏化设计可能出错的地方。正如我之前指出的,游戏化和游戏不是一回事,但它们确实有着相似的特质。

At their core, they share many common traits

在他们的核心,他们有许多共同的特点

  • Challenge 挑战
  • Pattern Recognition 模式识别
  • Learning 学习
  • Feedback 反馈
  • A safe environment to fail (magic circle)

一个失败的安全环境(魔法圈)

  • Sense of reward 奖励感

This is a gross oversimplification of games and the systems that make them “fun”, but it will do for our purposes to illustrate some of the issues we may face in gamification!

这是对游戏以及使其“有趣”的系统的过度简化,但是对于我们的目的来说,它可以说明我们在游戏化过程中可能面临的一些问题!

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 48 Challenge, Feedback, and Reward Cycle

图48挑战、反馈和奖励周期

Most gamification does have some pattern recognition. If I perform this action, something happens. It may be sharing a tweet and getting a point, or it could be completing certain challenges in some elaborate fantasy-based learning system. What can often be missing from gamification is a challenge that changes over time. If you keep playing the same game repeatedly and the challenge never changes – it becomes boring very fast. 

大多数游戏化确实有一些模式识别。如果我执行这个动作,就会发生一些事情。它可能是分享一条推文并得到一个观点,或者它可能是在一些精心设计的基于幻想的学习系统中完成某些挑战。游戏化过程中经常缺少的是一个随着时间推移而改变的挑战。如果你一直重复玩同样的游戏,挑战永远不会改变——它很快就会变得无聊。

Raph Koster uses Tic Tac Toe (Noughts and Crosses) as an example of this 88. When you do not recognise the patterns, there is a challenge to the game.

Raph Koster 使用 Tic Tac Toe (井字游戏井字棋)作为这个88的一个例子。当你不认识这些模式时,这就是对游戏的挑战。

As soon as you learn the optimal strategies and play an opponent of similar skill, the game no longer represents a challenge – there is nothing left to discover, and it becomes unsatisfying and no longer fun. There is not much of an interesting challenge in retweeting something or submitting sales reports.

一旦你学会了最佳策略,并和一个拥有相似技能的对手玩游戏,这个游戏就不再是一个挑战——没有什么可以发现,它变得不令人满意,也不再有趣。在转发某些东西或提交销售报告方面,没有什么有趣的挑战。

As we have discussed, rewards are not just points, it is often learning a new skill to make new accomplishments possible or unlocking items for a character or just access to the next part of the game. In gamification, the reward could be similar – think beyond points and badges and look at more intrinsic rewards (RAMP).

正如我们已经讨论过的,奖励不仅仅是点数,它通常是学习一项新的技能,使新的成就成为可能,或者解锁一个角色的物品,或者只是进入游戏的下一部分。在游戏化中,回报可能是类似的——超越积分和徽章,关注更多的内在回报(RAMP)。

Similarly, for feedback, it can be anything from simple prompts to actual rewards themselves. Again, they must be meaningful and in context to what the user is doing.

同样,对于反馈,它可以是任何东西,从简单的提示到实际的奖励。同样,它们必须是有意义的,并且与用户正在做的事情有关。

A Safe Place to Fail

一个安全的失败之地

For me, the biggest issue with how the Challenge, Feedback, Reward cycle appears in gamification is not the cycle so much as, what it is contained in – the Magic Circle that we visited earlier in the book.

对我来说,游戏化中的挑战、反馈、奖励循环最大的问题不在于这个循环,而在于它包含了什么——我们在本书前面讨论过的魔法循环。

In an enterprise setting, when was the last time you were told, “It’s okay if you fail as long as you learn from it?” Some methodologies try to promote it; Fail Fast, Fail Often and Fail Faster come up from time to time.

在企业环境中,你最后一次被告知: “只要你从失败中吸取教训,失败也没关系。”是什么时候一些方法试图促进它; 快速失败,经常失败和更快失败时不时出现。

In a game, failure is part of the learning process. You keep failing and retrying until you recognise the pattern and discover a solution. In business, that can be rather expensive!

在游戏中,失败是学习过程的一部分。你不断地失败和尝试,直到你认识到这个模式并找到解决方案。在商业领域,这可能相当昂贵!

How many times must Sonic hit the spikes before you discover the optimum moment to jump? How many goes at Tetris does it take to get the end screen? This all requires a safe environment to fail.

在你发现跳跃的最佳时机之前,索尼克必须击中多少次钉子?在俄罗斯方块上需要多少次才能得到最终的屏幕?这一切都需要一个安全的失败环境。

The player must feel secure that failing will not be punished so harshly that they lose all interest in the game. That is not to say that punishment cannot be hard. Losing all your kit is as you die in an RPG is annoying as hell, but not the end of the game for you! It does however, make you a touch more careful the next time you approach the same situation – or a touch more prepared.

球员必须感到安全,失败将不会受到如此严厉的惩罚,他们失去了所有兴趣的游戏。这并不是说惩罚不难。丢失你所有的工具包是因为你死在一个 RPG 是恼人的地狱,但不是游戏的结束为你!但是,当你下次遇到同样的情况时,它确实会让你更加小心,或者让你更加有准备。

At work, if you fail some form of punishment usually follows it. Unlike the game world, this also tends to have a direct impact on your real life. If a gamified system is in use at work, users may well feel that not only is it still not safe to fail, but it may be even easier to track that they have failed. That safe environment just does not naturally exist. Simulated environments and role-play can help to solve this.

在工作中,如果你失败了,通常会受到某种形式的惩罚。与游戏世界不同,这也会对你的现实生活产生直接影响。如果一个游戏化的系统在工作中使用,用户可能会觉得不仅失败是不安全的,而且可能更容易追踪他们的失败。这种安全的环境并不是自然存在的。模拟环境和角色扮演可以帮助解决这个问题。

Delayed Gratification and Effort

延迟满足和努力

I have always had this thought. If you work harder for something or must wait for it, the reward will seem greater. As it turns out, I was right. According to research, the anticipation of a reward is a trigger for dopamine and can make the reward even more… well, rewarding – which we like! 57

我一直有这样的想法。如果你为了某件事更加努力工作,或者必须等待,那么回报似乎会更大。事实证明,我是对的。根据研究,对奖励的期待是多巴胺的一个触发器,可以使奖励更加… … 好吧,奖励-这是我们喜欢的!57

The Marshmallow Test

棉花糖测试

However, not everyone is able to wait for rewards. There was a fantastic experiment in the 1970s referred to as the Stanford Marshmallow Experiment 89. The setup was simple. A child is sat at a table. A researcher placed a marshmallow on the table in front of the child and then presented made them an offer. Eat this one marshmallow now or wait until the researcher comes back and have two marshmallows. It is worth watching the videos if you need a smile! About one-third of the children waited.

然而,并不是每个人都能等待回报。20世纪70年代有一个奇妙的实验,被称为棉花糖实验89。设置很简单。一个孩子坐在桌旁。研究人员在孩子面前的桌子上放了一块棉花糖,然后给他们一个提议。现在就吃这个棉花糖,或者等研究人员回来吃两个棉花糖。如果你需要一个微笑,这些视频是值得一看的!大约三分之一的孩子在等待。

The interesting part of this was what happened to the children over the years, you see, the researchers followed the child’s progress for 40 years in a classic of longitudinal research. What they found was that the children who could wait for the second marshmallow, who could delay the gratification, were more successful over the 40-year period of the study. Their mindset allowed them to take short term pain for long term gain  90.

有趣的是,这些年来孩子们的情况,研究人员跟踪这个孩子40年的进步,进行了一项经典的纵向研究。他们发现,那些能够等待第二个棉花糖的孩子,那些能够推迟满足感的孩子,在40年的研究期间更加成功。他们的心态允许他们为了长期的收益而承受短期的痛苦。

Another interesting study that is very relevant here was done around 2012 and it looked at how experience, or as they called it “environmental reliability 91”, affected the marshmallow test. Although the setup was similar, this time before the test began the children were split into two different groups. They were both offered incentives and extras such as new crayons for colouring in pictures.

另一项有趣的研究与此非常相关,是在2012年左右完成的,它着眼于经验,或者他们称之为“环境可靠性91”,如何影响棉花糖测试。虽然实验设置相似,但是这一次在测试开始之前,孩子们被分成两组。他们都得到了奖励和额外的东西,比如为照片着色的新蜡笔。

The difference was that one group were given the extras they were promised, the other was not. When they ran the marshmallow test on these groups, they found an interesting correlation between having expectations met and ability to delay gratification. The group that had been getting what they were promised showed a much greater ability to wait for the second marshmallow. Their expectations and trust were such that they felt confident that the researcher would return. The other group had no reason to trust the researcher, so ate the marshmallow straight away. On average, the first group would wait 12 minutes before eating the marshmallow. The second group waited on average just 3 minutes!

不同之处在于,一组人得到了承诺的额外收入,而另一组人没有。当他们对这些小组进行棉花糖测试时,他们发现期望值达到和延迟满足能力之间存在有趣的相关性。得到承诺的那一组显示出更强的等待第二个棉花糖的能力。他们的期望和信任是如此之高,以至于他们相信研究人员会回来。另一组没有理由相信研究人员,所以直接吃了棉花糖。平均而言,第一组在吃棉花糖之前会等待12分钟。第二组平均只等了3分钟!

They proved that delayed gratification was a cognitive process. We assess based on experience whether it is worth waiting or not.

他们证明了延迟满足是一个认知过程。我们根据经验来评估是否值得等待。

Applying this to Gamification

应用于游戏化

A few big takeaways from this can be applied to gamification.

这里的一些重要观点可以应用到游戏化上。

  • People will wait for rewards if they feel they are worth it.

如果人们觉得自己值得,他们会等待回报。

  • People will wait for a reward if they trust that it will come.

如果人们相信奖励会到来,他们就会等待。

  • Anticipation can lead to greater gratification from a reward.

期待可以从奖励中获得更大的满足感。

However, we need to be able to apply this in a reliable way. The diagram below gives a quick outline of how. Personal investment here could be time, effort, emotional etc.

然而,我们需要能够以可靠的方式应用这一点。下面的图表给出了如何快速概述。个人在这方面的投入可以是时间、精力、情感等等。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 49 Perceived Reward Value vs Personal Investment

图49感知回报价值与个人投资

When you make someone wait for a reward, make sure it is meaningful and worth receiving. That does not mean the reward needs to be larger in material value, rather the value the recipient places on the reward needs to be larger. Take a relationship. Relationships require work and take time. When you first meet someone, it is rare that you are suddenly best friends. However, take the time and work at it and the friendship can become truly rewarding.

当你让别人等待奖励的时候,确保它是有意义的,值得接受的。这并不意味着奖励需要更大的物质价值,而是接受者对奖励的价值需要更大。以一段关系为例。人际关系需要工作和时间。当你第一次遇见某人时,你们很少会突然成为最好的朋友。然而,花点时间和精力在这上面,友谊就会变得真正有价值。

Along the way, we need signals that we are following the right path. Going back to the relationship, if we start to feel that the other person is not returning the friendship, because there are no signals that it is going well, we will begin to drift away, and the friendship will fail.

一路走来,我们需要信号,表明我们正在沿着正确的道路前进。回到这段关系,如果我们开始觉得对方没有回复友谊,因为没有任何迹象表明进展顺利,我们就会开始疏远,友谊就会失败。

Whilst waiting for the big prize, people need to have incremental rewards over time just to nudge them along. These will have less value to them but will help to keep them on the right path.

在等待大奖的同时,人们需要随着时间的推移获得递增的奖励,以推动他们前进。这些对他们来说没有什么价值,但会帮助他们走上正确的道路。

In our gamified system, these small, regular nudges come in the form of points, XP, money etc., whatever has the most relevance in the context of your system. They have less value to the user, but they show the user they have done something right. Slightly larger nudges would include more visible and potentially more valuable rewards such as badges that represent smaller achievements.

在我们的游戏化系统中,这些小的、常规的推动以点数、 XP、金钱等等的形式出现,任何与您的系统环境最相关的东西。它们对用户来说没有什么价值,但是它们向用户展示了它们做对了一些事情。稍大的推动将包括更多的可见性和潜在的更有价值的奖励,比如代表较小成就的徽章。

Finally, after hard work and patience, the larger reward. These will be less common but should represent some real level of achievement or be attached to a larger value reward of some sort.

最后,在努力工作和耐心之后,更大的回报。这些将是不常见的,但应该代表一些真正的水平的成就或附加到一个更大的价值奖励的某种形式。

From time to time, delight your users by randomly giving a larger reward that has not necessarily been “earned” as a way to have the system just say, “Thanks for sticking with it”. These will give the user a nice feeling of being valued. Always avoid making people work hard and then must wait to get a low-value reward.

时不时地,随机给用户一个更大的奖励来取悦你的用户,而这个奖励并不一定是“赢得”的,这样系统只会说,“谢谢你坚持下来”。这些会给用户一种被重视的美好感觉。总是避免让人们努力工作,然后必须等待获得低价值的奖励。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 50 Example of Reward vs Investment

图50奖励与投资的例子

Perceived Value

感知价值

It is important to appreciate that the perceived value of rewards can reduce over time. What someone might be willing to work hard for initially, they may not be willing to work as hard for a second or a third time. They will expect the value of the reward to be greater each time, especially if they must work harder.

重要的是要意识到奖励的感知价值会随着时间的推移而减少。一个人最初可能愿意为之努力的东西,他们可能不愿意再努力一次或第三次。他们希望奖励的价值一次比一次大,特别是当他们必须更加努力工作的时候。

Value to the User vs Value to You

对用户的价值 vs 对你的价值

Whist basing the value of the reward on a user’s personal investment is important, it is also important not to lose sight of why you were gamifying the system in the first place.

基于用户个人投资的回报价值是重要的,但也不能忽视为什么你首先要游戏化这个系统。

Normally it is because there are certain actions or activities that you want to encourage the user to perform and complete. That being the case, you must sometimes consider how valuable the action is to you, not just how much effort it is for the user.

通常是因为您希望鼓励用户执行和完成某些操作或活动。在这种情况下,您有时必须考虑操作对您有多大价值,而不仅仅是对用户有多少努力。

If an action is simple for the user and valuable to you – then reward them. If it is harder for them and valuable to you – reward them more. If it is easy and of low value to you – don’t reward them much. So far, so obvious.

如果一个动作对用户来说很简单,对你来说很有价值,那么就奖励他们。如果对他们来说更难,对你来说更有价值,那就多奖励他们。如果这对你来说很容易而且价值不高,那就不要给他们太多的奖励。到目前为止,这是显而易见的。

However, it is when the activity is hard for the user, but of lower value to you, that it can get a bit tricky. First, ask the question “Do we actually want the user to do this if it is so hard for them and of so little value to us?” If you can answer that and still feel that the action is needed, you must give them a decent reward. Not as much as you would if it was high-effort for them and high value to you, but more than low effort and high value!

然而,当活动对用户来说很困难,但对你来说价值较低时,就会变得有点棘手。首先,问这样一个问题: “如果这对用户来说很难,而对我们来说又没有什么价值,我们真的希望用户这么做吗?”如果你能回答这个问题,并且仍然觉得这个行动是必要的,那么你必须给他们一个体面的奖励。如果对他们来说付出的努力很多,对你来说价值很高,那么你就不会付出这么多,但是付出的努力却很少,而且价值很高!

Figure 51 gives an outline of how this would work. The more stars, the greater the value of the reward. Again, this is value as perceived by the user!

图51给出了如何工作的大纲。星星越多,奖励的价值就越大。同样,这也是用户感知到的价值!

图片包含 图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 51 User Effort vs Value to the System

图51用户努力与系统价值

Ways to Plan Rewards

计划奖励的方法

There are various ways to give rewards to users; these are referred to as Reward Schedules and are well documented in game design 18. However, I wanted to give a quick outline of a few that can be beneficial here.

给用户奖励有很多种方法,这些方法被称为奖励计划,并且在游戏设计中有详细的记录。然而,我想在这里给出一些有益的概述。

Random/Variable

随机/变数

These rewards are given at unknown intervals – they are there to surprise and delight the user. Put simply, users should not expect one of these rewards.

这些奖励是以未知的间隔给予的——它们是为了给用户带来惊喜和愉悦。简单地说,用户不应该期待这些奖励中的任何一个。

For example, it could be that they clicked on a link on the site and it just happens they were the 42nd person to do so and they get the “Don’t Panic – the Answer is 42” badge.

例如,可能他们点击了网站上的一个链接,碰巧他们是第42个这样做的人,他们得到了“不要惊慌——答案是42”徽章。

Fixed

固定的

Fixed rewards are the most common. Click “Like” 10 times, get the “I Clicked ‘Like’ 10 Times” badge. During on-boarding, these can be very useful as part of the feedback you are giving the user, but over time they lose their effect.

固定奖励是最常见的。点击“喜欢”10次,获得“我点击了‘喜欢’10次”徽章。在登录过程中,这些作为你给用户的反馈的一部分是非常有用的,但是随着时间的推移,它们失去了它们的作用。

Time Dependant

时间依赖性

These occur at specific times, like an email on a user’s birthday or after a year of repeatedly visiting a website.

这些都发生在特定的时间,比如用户生日那天的电子邮件,或者一年之后重复访问一个网站。

Performance-Contingent

服务表现-视情况而定

In games, you can see these as bonuses for executing actions that require above average skills, such as winning with complex attack combinations or without losing any health.

在游戏中,你可以看到这些作为执行需要高于平均水平的技能的动作的奖励,例如复杂的攻击组合或不失去任何生命值的情况下获胜。

In the real world, I am not a huge fan of these; they are how financial bonuses work. If you consider a job, the bonus is the financial incentive you would be offered, beyond your base salary, for hitting certain targets. According to the UK Treasury Select Committee report on the banking crisis in 2007/2008, bonus culture encouraged risk-taking at the expense of the long-term health of the banks.

在现实世界中,我并不是这些东西的狂热粉丝,它们是金融奖金的运作方式。如果你考虑一份工作,奖金就是除了你的基本工资之外,为了实现某些目标而提供给你的经济奖励。根据英国财政部特别委员会(UK Treasury Select Committee)关于2007/2008年银行业危机的报告,奖金文化鼓励冒险,而牺牲了银行的长期健康。

The UK chairman of the Financial Services Authority, Adair Turner, said in the turner report that “inappropriate incentive structures played a role in encouraging behaviour which contributed to the financial crisis”  92. Worth keeping that in mind when considering the use of performance-contingent rewards!

英国金融服务管理局(fsa)主席阿戴尔•特纳(Adair Turner)在特纳的报告中表示,“不适当的激励结构在鼓励行为方面发挥了作用,从而导致了金融危机”。在考虑使用绩效奖励时,值得记住这一点!

Below are a few more examples of how to plan/schedule rewards.

下面是一些如何计划/安排奖励的例子。

Welcome the user: Introduce the user to the fact rewards are in use and thank them for taking that first step.

欢迎用户: 向用户介绍奖励正在使用的事实,并感谢他们迈出了第一步。

Encourage and reinforce:  Use achievements and rewards to help reinforce the behaviours you are trying to encourage in the early stages of the user’s journey.

鼓励和强化: 在用户旅程的早期阶段,使用成就和奖励来帮助强化你试图鼓励的行为。

Scarcity: Rewards should become harder to achieve within the system and should require greater levels of skill as the user continues their journey. This will, in turn, make them scarcer.

稀缺性: 奖励应该变得更难在系统内实现,并且应该要求更高水平的技能,因为用户继续他们的旅程。这反过来会使它们更加稀缺。

Reward Loyalty: It is easy to forget this, but it is important to recognise longevity and loyalty. This can come in several forms. It could be as simple as a badge to thank the recipient or the reward could be some form of preferential treatment.

奖励忠诚: 很容易忘记这一点,但重要的是要认识到长寿和忠诚。这可以有几种形式。可以是一个感谢接受者的徽章,也可以是某种形式的优惠待遇。

For example, when I first started to use mobile phones, it was a constant area of contention for me that new users got better deals on contracts and phone costs than renewing users. My loyalty to the provider seemed to be of little value to them. That being the case, I changed provider whenever it came time to get a new phone!

例如,当我刚开始使用手机的时候,新用户在合同和手机费用方面比续订用户获得了更好的待遇,这对我来说是一个持续争论的领域。我对供应商的忠诚似乎对他们毫无价值。在这种情况下,每当需要买新手机的时候,我都会更换供应商!

In the last year or two, this has become more balanced. The deals I am offered as a loyal customer are comparable to, if not better than those for new users.

在过去的一两年里,这一点已经变得更加平衡。作为一个忠实的客户,我得到的优惠就算不比新用户的优惠更好,至少也能与之相媲美。

I will focus more on loyalty in a later chapter as it deserves a much closer look.

我将在后面的章节中更多地关注忠诚度,因为它值得更仔细地研究。

Overjustification Effect: The Trouble with Rewards

过度辩护效应: 奖励的麻烦

Consider our simple example of a gamified system above. What would happen if someone decided it was more enjoyable to collect the badges than it was to engage with the content?

考虑我们上面关于游戏化系统的简单例子。如果有人认为收集徽章比参与内容更有趣,会发生什么?

The likelihood is that they would start repeating actions that gave them points but had little to no value to the site. If they get points for comments, what is to stop them just posting hundreds of comments like “Nice post” or even “asasasfasf asdasd”? In many systems, nothing.

可能的情况是,他们会开始重复那些给他们点数的动作,但这些动作对网站几乎没有任何价值。如果他们的评论得分,是什么阻止他们只是张贴数以百计的评论,如“漂亮的帖子”或甚至“ asasasfasf asdasd”?在许多系统中,什么都没有。

There is a precedence for this in psychology called Overjustification effect 72, described by Lepper et al in the 1970’s. Put simply, this is what happens when the reward becomes more important to the user than the activity.

这在心理学中有一个先例,被称为过度辩护效应72,由 Lepper 等人在20世纪70年代描述。简而言之,当奖励对用户来说比活动更重要时,就会发生这种情况。

This becomes a very real problem when you have physical rewards that have a high perceived value. This is something you see a lot in gamified systems, the highest scorer gets an iPad for instance.

当你拥有具有高感知价值的物理奖励时,这就成为一个非常现实的问题。这是你在游戏化系统中经常看到的东西,例如,得分最高的人会得到一台 iPad。

The effect was shown via some very interesting experiments involving children and how rewards affected their interest in drawing.

这种效果通过一些非常有趣的实验得到了证实,这些实验涉及到儿童以及奖励如何影响他们对绘画的兴趣。

They were split into three groups.

他们被分成三组。

  • The first group were told they would get a reward at the end of the activity.

第一组被告知他们将在活动结束时得到奖励。

  • The second group were not told about any rewards but received one as a surprise after the activity.

第二组没有被告知任何奖励,但是在活动结束后收到了一个惊喜。

  • The final group were not offered a reward and got no reward.

最后一组没有奖励,也没有奖励。

This was repeated over time and the subjects were monitored. They found that the group who expected a reward spent far less time drawing than the group who were getting no reward.

随着时间的推移,这个过程会重复进行,受试者也会受到监控。他们发现,期待奖励的那组人比没有奖励的那组人花在画画上的时间要少得多。

The group that received the surprise reward spent the most time drawing. It also transpired that the group who expected a reward produced less creative work.

得到惊喜奖励的那组人花了最多的时间画画。结果还显示,期望得到奖励的那组人的创造性工作较少。

The fun, the intrinsic motivation, had been replaced with the expectation of a reward.

乐趣,内在的动机,已经被期望得到回报所取代。

These kinds of experiments have been repeated over the years – each one proving the same thing. In the 1990’s a research group led by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan did a meta-analysis of 128 different papers on the subject.

这种实验多年来一直在重复,每一次都证明了同样的事情。在20世纪90年代,由 Edward Deci 和 Richard Ryan 领导的一个研究小组对128篇关于这个主题的不同论文进行了荟萃分析。

The analysis found that for tasks that required even the slightest level of creativity, offering predictable extrinsic rewards like money, had a negative effect, or as they put it

分析发现,对于那些需要最轻微创造力水平的任务,如提供可预测的外在奖励,如金钱,有负面影响,或者如他们所说

“engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation” 93

根据员工投入情况、完成情况和绩效情况决定的奖励严重削弱了自由选择的内在动机

Incentivising creativity obviously does not work in this case. When you are looking for quality engagement, this is not the way to go. You can certainly drive quantity using these methods and if that is all you need, and it is over a short period, then this is likely to work.

激励创造力显然在这种情况下不起作用。当你在寻找高质量的参与时,这不是正确的方法。你当然可以使用这些方法驱动数量,如果这是所有你需要的,它是在一个短期内,然后这是可能的工作。

So, is all hope lost for employing rewards in gamified systems? Of course not, you just have to do it right!

那么,在游戏化的系统中使用奖励的所有希望都失去了吗?当然不是,你只需要正确地做就行了!

Underjustification Effect 低调整效应

It is worth mentioning something that I talk about called Underjustification effect. I define this as;

值得一提的是,我谈到了一个叫做 underjustyeffect 的东西,我把它定义为;

“The decrease in motivation to perform a task or tasks when supposedly motivation techniques are applied in place of perceived fair compensation or treatment.”

“当应用所谓的激励技巧来代替公平的补偿或待遇时,人们完成一项或多项任务的动力下降。”

Consider an environment where intrinsic motivation may be low, for instance in an organisation where redundancies are going on, or there are financial hardships of some kind. Often, in an attempt to improve motivation of the workforce, techniques are employed that some feel should “raise spirits”.

考虑一个内在动力可能很低的环境,例如在一个正在裁员的组织中,或者有某种财务困难。通常,为了提高员工的积极性,企业会采用一些让一些人觉得应该“振奋精神”的技术。

A classic example is adding a pool table to the office. More recently, this can be seen where gamification is being added, potentially without due thought or understanding.

一个经典的例子是在办公室添加一个台球桌。最近,这可以看到游戏化被添加,可能没有适当的思考或理解。

What happens in this instance is motivation actually decreases and people can become angry with the people who decided to implement these motivational tactics. The reasons may differ. If their lack of motivation relates to concerns of financial security, then the addition of costly trivialities could feel like a slap in the face. “Why could they not use that money to pay me more?”

在这种情况下,动机实际上减少了,人们可能会对那些决定实施这些动机策略的人感到愤怒。原因可能有所不同。如果他们缺乏动力是出于对财务安全的担忧,那么增加昂贵的琐事可能会让人感觉像是给了他们一记耳光。“他们为什么不能用这笔钱来支付我更多的工资呢?”

If the lack of motivation is due to uncertainty around job security, then they may view it as a trivial attempt to cheer them up. “I’m not so stupid that a pool table is going to make me forget about the redundancies, how little do they think of me?”

如果缺乏动力是由于对工作保障的不确定性,那么他们可能会把这看作是让他们振作起来的微不足道的尝试。“我还不至于蠢到一张台球桌就能让我忘记裁员的事情,他们对我的看法有多少?”

Remember, these insecurities or feelings of unfairness may well be perceived rather than actual, but that does not make them any less concerning or demotivational the individuals!

请记住,这些不安全感或不公平的感觉可能是感知到的而不是实际的,但这并不会使他们不关心或使个人失去动力!

Actually, in that instance, it could be linked to Solutioneering, where a solution is created without understanding the problem and reduces motivation because it ignores the core problem!

实际上,在这种情况下,它可以与 Solutioneering 联系在一起,在那里,一个解决方案在没有理解问题的情况下被创造出来,并且因为它忽略了核心问题而降低了动力!

 

How to Design a Simple Gamified System

如何设计一个简单的游戏化系统

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

It is time to build stop talking and start doing. Or at least that is what I think. My Master probably just wants to keep talking. However. Let’s look at how to build something!

是时候停止空谈,开始行动了。至少我是这么想的。我的主人可能只是想继续说话。但是。让我们来看看如何建造一些东西!

Let’s look at designing a simple system that relies on points, badges and leaderboards.

让我们来看看设计一个简单的系统,它依赖于积分、徽章和排行榜。

Getting Started

开始

We will start from the assumption that you have worked out what problem you are solving and with whom you are trying to engage. In this case, we are going to look at gamifying social interaction with a blog: likes, shares and comments.

我们将从假设你已经解决了你正在解决的问题以及你正试图与谁合作开始。在这种情况下,我们将着眼于游戏化的社会互动与博客: 喜欢,分享和评论。

First, you need to figure out what activities or behaviours you want to encourage. You may want people to engage with your content more. You want comments, likes and social shares. This could just as easily be wanting people to view the details of a product, selling certain numbers of products per week, putting the toilet seat down and so on.

首先,你需要弄清楚你想鼓励什么样的活动或行为。你可能希望人们更多地参与到你的内容中来。你想要评论,喜欢和社会分享。这很容易就能让人们看到产品的细节,每周销售一定数量的产品,放下马桶座圈等等。

In the “Design Tips” chapter later, I will cover a few techniques to help this initial decision-making phase.

在后面的“设计技巧”一章中,我将介绍一些有助于这个初始决策阶段的技巧。

Points

积分

Points will be the backbone of this type of system. Assign each action a certain point value. As explained in the last chapter work out what actions are harder to do or are more valuable to the system.

点将是这种类型系统的骨干。为每个动作分配一个特定的点值。正如上一章所解释的那样,找出哪些行动更难做,哪些对系统更有价值。

Give them higher point values than easier, less valuable, tasks. Also, keep in mind that harder activities may need a slightly bigger push or incentive to get the user to perform.

给他们更高的分值,而不是更简单、更没价值的任务。另外,请记住,更困难的活动可能需要稍微大一点的推动或激励,以获得用户的执行。

It is easier to click a “Like” button than it is to leave a well-considered comment. Remember, well considered does not always mean quality. Peer review can be used to help ensure that.

点击“喜欢”按钮要比留下深思熟虑的评论容易得多。记住,深思熟虑并不总是意味着质量。同行评审可以帮助确保。

In our example, liking articles will be worth 10 points, shares 15 and comments 20.

在我们的例子中,喜欢文章值10分,分享15分,评论20分。

Badges

徽章

Decide what achievements you want to celebrate on the system. Say thanks to a user for sharing 20 articles with a badge, adding 10 comments, that sort of thing. A very common badge to give is for the first action. This is somewhat meaningless; however, it does set the scene for people using your system.

决定你想在这个系统上庆祝什么成就。感谢用户带着徽章分享20篇文章,添加10条评论,诸如此类。一个非常常见的给予徽章是为了第一个行动。这有点没有意义; 但是,它确实为使用你的系统的人们设置了场景。

Levels/Ranks

级别/职级

In our system, when they enter at 0 points, they are assigned the newbie rank. After 500 points, they move up a rank. As rank increases, it is best to space ranks out further. Ranks 1, 2 and 3 may have a gap of 500 points where 4, 5 and 6 go up to 1000 points between ranks and so on.

在我们的系统中,当他们输入0点时,他们被分配到新手的等级。得到500分后,他们的排名就会上升。随着排名的增加,最好的方法是进一步增加排名。等级1、2和3之间的差距可能为500点,等级4、5和6之间的差距可能达到1000点等等。

However, like badges, there comes a time when you must cut off how many ranks you have – I feel there must be an endgame to aim for!

然而,就像徽章一样,总有一天你必须削减自己的等级——我觉得必须有一个终极目标!

Leaderboards

排行榜

Use the points to define a position on a leaderboard. Depending on whom you are trying to engage and what you want them to do, you must decide on Absolute, Relative or Non-Competitive. In our simple system, absolute will do fine.

使用这些点来定义排行榜上的位置。根据你试图吸引的对象和你希望他们做什么,你必须决定绝对、相对或非竞争。在我们简单的系统中,绝对可以做得很好。

Figure 52 is a Machinations diagram that outlines our basic system. I will look at Machinations a little later in the chapter on Modelling Systems.

图52是一个阴谋图,概述了我们的基本系统。我将在稍后的建模系统章节中讨论阴谋论。

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 52 Machinations Example of our Simple System

图52我们简单系统的例子

 

How to Understand Emotions in Gamification Design

如何理解游戏化设计中的情感

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 Ah emotions. Once I had them, but my Master quickly dealt with that. Now I am a lean, mean, gamification machine. However, your users may not be, so it is important to understand their emotions. 啊,情感。我曾经拥有它们,但是我的师父很快就处理了。现在我是一个精干的、卑鄙的、游戏化的机器。然而,你的用户可能不是,所以了解他们的情绪很重要

You will see later in my design framework that I mention emotions as an important consideration in my design process. I am by no means the first to think about it in a design framework. If you look at the MDA framework 21s the authors describe the aesthetics as:

您将在后面的设计框架中看到,我将情感作为设计过程中的一个重要考虑因素。我绝不是第一个在设计框架中思考这个问题的人。如果你看一下 MDA 框架21s,作者将美学描述为:

the desirable emotional responses evoked in the player, when she interacts with the game system.

当玩家与游戏系统互动时,所引起的理想的情绪反应。

Later a more gamification focused framework, the MDE framework94, dropped aesthetics and replaced them directly with emotions.

后来,MDE 框架(MDE framework94)取消了美学,直接用情感取代了游戏化。

There are many theories and papers written about emotions and what core emotions are etc. I did some research and it is pretty diverse! Aristotle’s De Anima 95 is credited as one of the first sources to mention some sort of formalised core emotions of human beings. Since then many other formalisations have been created 96–99 with differing views of what form these core emotions.

关于情绪和什么是核心情绪等方面的理论和论文很多。我做了一些研究,它是相当多样化的!亚里士多德的《 De Anima 95》被认为是最早提到人类某种形式化的核心情感的资料来源之一。从那时起,许多其他形式化的表达已经被创建96-99,对于这些核心情绪的形式有不同的看法。

I have chosen a few that I have personally worked with in gamification design, as well as their opposites, which I will come to. But first, what did I choose?

我选择了一些我在游戏化设计中亲自工作过的人,以及他们的对立面,我将会谈到这些。但首先,我选择了什么?

图表

描述已自动生成

The Emotions

情感

On the positive side of the emotional scale, I went with Hope, Gratitude, Joy, Pride, Surprise, Love and Desire. Their negative counterparts are Fear, Anger, Sadness, Shame, Alarm, Hate and Disgust.

在情感量表的积极方面,我选择了希望、感激、喜悦、骄傲、惊喜、爱和欲望。他们的消极对应物是恐惧、愤怒、悲伤、羞耻、恐惧、憎恨和厌恶。

These all sound rather extreme and they are, but they are handy for us from a design perspective.

这些都听起来相当极端,他们是,但他们是方便我们从设计的角度来看。

 

For instance, you would hope that a gamification solution that relied on a reciprocal economy, elicited feelings of gratitude. However, if you get it wrong, it is handy to know what the opposite could be, anger. People may be angry that there is limited value to them on their side of the deal, for instance.

例如,你可能希望依靠互惠经济的游戏化解决方案能够引起感激之情。然而,如果你弄错了,知道反过来是什么,愤怒就很方便了。例如,人们可能会因为交易对他们的价值有限而感到愤怒。

You would hope that people felt a desire to be involved in the system, but if they don’t they may feel some level of disgust at the thought of being manipulated by it.

你可能希望人们感到有参与这个系统的愿望,但是如果他们不这样做,他们可能会对被这个系统操纵的想法感到某种程度的厌恶。

People fear the unknown, but with good on-boarding, they may begin to experience hope that the experience will be a good one and they will benefit from it.

人们害怕未知的事物,但是有了好的登机体验,他们可能会开始体验到希望,希望这种体验会是好的,他们会从中受益。

Play and games often give players moments of great joy and happiness, gamification should be no different. However, sadness here may not always be negative. If you play a game such as That Dragon Cancer, sadness is part of the experience.

游戏和游戏经常给玩家带来极大的快乐和幸福,游戏化应该没有什么不同。然而,这里的悲伤并不总是消极的。如果你玩一个游戏,比如那条龙癌症,悲伤也是经历的一部分。

Pride and Shame are both very strong emotions and key motivators in many gamified experiences. Often, shame is used to push people to act. This can be done in a positive way, if I have not done my steps that day I may feel a stab of shame! However, if I achieve my steps that day or better still, break my record – I will feel great pride in my achievements. The key is to not use shame as a weapon – shameification is not cool!

骄傲和羞耻都是非常强烈的情感,也是许多游戏体验的关键动力。通常,羞耻感被用来促使人们行动。这可以用一种积极的方式来做,如果那天我没有完成我的步骤,我可能会感到羞愧刺痛!然而,如果那天我完成了我的步伐或者更好,打破我的记录——我会为我的成就感到非常自豪。关键是不要把羞耻当作武器——羞耻是不酷的!

 

Surprise is something I speak about a lot in the form of random rewards, Easter eggs and the like. Surprises are often nice little bonuses that just make a player smile and feel a little bit of joy as well. However, get things wrong and they can feel alarmed by things happening that they don’t have control over. Unexpected events that have no explanation and no obvious benefits can be unsettling.

我经常以随机奖励、复活节彩蛋等形式谈论惊喜。惊喜往往是美好的小奖金,只是让玩家微笑和感到一点点的快乐。然而,如果做错了事情,他们可能会对自己无法控制的事情感到恐慌。没有解释、没有明显好处的意外事件会令人不安。

Love and hate are self-explanatory and are both extremes of the emotions people are likely to have around your gamified experience, though you are more likely to see like and dislike. Either way, it is best to aim for them loving your system over hating it!

爱和恨是不言自明的,它们都是人们在你的游戏体验中可能会有的极端情绪,尽管你更有可能看到喜欢和不喜欢。无论哪种方式,最好的目标是他们爱你的系统,而不是恨它!

In Your Design

在你的设计中

In the design process you will see later, I put emotions in the BMEM section of my design framework; Behaviours, Motivations, Emotions and Mechanics. The idea is to understand what behaviours you are seeking from the user, what their motivations might be to behave that way (or not) and then what emotions you want them to experience. This is easier in a game as you are creating true virtual worlds for them to play in. In gamification, you are often limited by how you can communicate your vision to the user, but this should not stop you considering emotions anyway! Well worded messages, meaningful rewards, narrative streams and mini games can all go to build strong emotional responses.

在后面的设计过程中,我将情感放在我的设计框架的 BMEM 部分,行为,动机,情感和机制。这个想法是为了了解你想从用户那里得到什么样的行为,他们的动机可能是什么,以及你想让他们体验什么样的情绪。这在游戏中更容易,因为你正在为他们创建真实的虚拟世界。在游戏化中,你经常受到如何向用户传达你的愿景的限制,但是这不应该阻止你考虑情感!措辞良好的信息,有意义的奖励,叙事流和小游戏都可以建立强烈的情感反应。

 

How to Use Narrative to Create Deeper Experiences

如何利用叙事创造更深层次的体验

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

I like a good story, and how I met Rainbow the Unicorn is a great one. Maybe one day, you will find out all about it. Until then, my master scrawled down some ideas on how to build stories and interactive narratives. Enjoy – or at least pretend to…

我喜欢一个好故事,我如何遇到彩虹独角兽是一个伟大的故事。也许有一天,你会发现这一切。在那之前,我的主人草草写下了一些关于如何构建故事和互动叙事的想法。享受-或者至少假装..。

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Whenever I speak to people in the circles within which I hang out, one of the things I keep hearing is story and narrative. “You have to tell your story”, “What is the narrative?”, what is the companies’ story”. To be honest, it drives me a little nuts, but that’s by the by. The fact is, these are important things to consider. That said, it got me thinking, is what is the difference between story and narrative?

每当我和圈子里的人交谈时,我总是听到故事和叙述。“你必须讲述你的故事”,“什么是故事?”,这些公司有什么故事? 」。说实话,这让我有点抓狂,但那只是顺便说一下。事实上,这些都是需要考虑的重要事情。也就是说,这让我思考,故事和叙事之间有什么区别?

Story seems to have quite a few definitions. According to the Oxford dictionary, it is:

Story 似乎有不少定义。根据牛津词典,它是:

  1. an account of imaginary or real people and events told for entertainment

为娱乐而讲述的虚构的或真实的人物和事件

  1. a report of an item of news in a newspaper, magazine, or broadcast

报纸、杂志或广播中关于新闻的报道

  1. an account of past events in someone’s life or in the development of something

对某人过去生活中或某事发展中的事件的记述

  1. the commercial prospects or circumstances of a company

公司的商业前景或情况

Whilst narrative is defined as: 叙事的定义是:

  1. a spoken or written account of connected events; a story.

对相关事件的口头或书面叙述; 故事。

So really, story and narrative are pretty much the same things! For me, the most important definition in the context of gamification is number 3 “an account of past events in someone’s life or in the development of something”. The way I see it, a that the story contains a start, a middle and an end. A narrative is more real time, it describes events as they are happening from the perspective of the person they are happening to. If you consider a game, the narrative would be the way events unfold as you play.

所以说真的,故事和叙事几乎是一回事!在我看来,游戏化背景下最重要的定义是第3条: “对某人生活或某事发展过程中的过去事件的记述”。在我看来,这个故事包含了一个开始,一个中间和一个结尾。叙事是更加实时的,它描述事件发生时从发生在他们身上的人的角度。如果你考虑一个游戏,游戏的叙述方式就是你玩游戏时事件的展开方式。

The story will include the backstory and the ongoing plot of the game. That being the case, the story could be the same for each player, whereas the narrative would potentially be unique to each one.

故事将包括背景故事和正在进行的游戏情节。在这种情况下,每个玩家的故事可能是相同的,而每个玩家的故事可能是独一无二的。

How does this relate to gamification? Well, on the one hand, you could say that everyone has a story, they have a history and they have things happening to them right now, their narratives. All of this goes influences who they are and who they may be in the future. In gamification, we are often looking at influencing or changing behaviour, knowing the story of each person can help inform us how best to engage with and motivate them.

这和游戏化有什么关系?一方面,你可以说每个人都有一个故事,他们有一段历史,他们现在正在经历一些事情,他们的故事。所有这些都会影响到他们是谁,以及他们在未来会是什么样的人。在游戏化中,我们经常关注影响或改变行为,了解每个人的故事可以帮助我们知道如何最好地参与和激励他们。

You could look at it even more literally though and create a story and so a narrative for each user to engage with whilst they use your system. This could be especially useful during the on-boarding or scaffolding phases of a design. Take your users through a story, preferably one that changes based on the choices they make and how they wish to go through it. Give them what they need through completing parts of the story. Doing it this way, when done well, will have far more impact on them than giving them points for doing things. The sense of purpose that a story can give is very powerful – even if it is more a short story than an epic!

你甚至可以更直观地看待它,并创建一个故事,以便每个用户在使用你的系统时都能参与其中。这在设计的入门阶段或脚手架阶段尤其有用。带领你的用户通过一个故事,最好是一个基于他们所做的选择和他们希望如何通过它的变化。通过完成故事的部分,给他们他们需要的东西。这样做,如果做得好,对他们的影响将远远大于给他们做事的分数。一个故事可以给人的目的感是非常强大的——即使它更多的是一个短篇小说而不是一部史诗!

A picture may be worth a thousand words, but a good story is worth a thousand instruction manuals.

一张图片胜过千言万语,但一个好故事胜过一千本说明书。

Narrative Atoms

叙事原子

Now that we know a bit more about what narratives are, I want to dive deeper into building narratives and stories, starting with the concept of Narrative atoms.

现在我们对叙事有了更多的了解,我想更深入地研究叙事和故事,从叙事原子的概念开始。

Narrative atoms are small units of narrative or story that can, within the context of the overall narrative, stand alone. That does not mean they need to be completely self-explanatory, just sit comfortably on their own.

叙事原子是叙事或故事的小单元,在整个叙事的上下文中,它们是独立的。这并不意味着他们需要完全自我解释,只是舒适地坐在自己。

卡通人物

低可信度描述已自动生成

Figure 53 Narrative Atoms 图53叙述性原子

In a standard linear story, each atom would be placed sequentially, so their ability to stand alone is less important. However, in many games the narrative bends and twists and turns in a non-linear way.

在一个标准的线性故事中,每个原子将按顺序排列,因此它们独立存在的能力就不那么重要了。然而,在许多游戏中,故事以一种非线性的方式曲折发展。

For that to work, for a story to make sense as it jumps from A to C to G to B and back again, each section, each narrative atom must be able to hold its own without the need for every other atom to support it.

为了达到这个目的,为了让故事从 a 跳到 c 再跳到 g 再跳回 b,每个部分,每个叙事原子必须能够保持自己的位置,而不需要其他原子的支持。

Take a scenario where a game has more than one option for what can be done after the first scene. Maybe you have a choice of going left or right.

设想一个场景,一个游戏在第一个场景之后有多个选项可以做什么。也许你可以选择向左或向右。

After that, you have more choices and more, but all the while the narrative needs to keep making sense. More than that, it all needs to conclude and not leave the player (unintentionally) wondering what the hell has happened!

在那之后,你有更多的选择和更多的选择,但同时叙述需要保持有意义。更重要的是,这一切都需要结束,不要让玩家(无意中)想知道到底发生了什么!

Basic Narrative Structure

基本叙事结构

At their most basic, stories have just three parts. A start, a middle and an end. In traditional media that is straightforward. There are many ideas out there on how to write stories, Joseph Campbell’s Hero’s Journey / Monomyth 100 gets a lot of attention. I also rather like Kurt Vonnegut concept of Story Shapes 101.

故事最基本的部分只有三个部分。一个开始,一个过程,一个结束。在传统媒体中,这是直截了当的。关于如何写故事有很多想法,约瑟夫 · 坎贝尔的《英雄之旅》/《单胞菌100》得到了很多关注。我也很喜欢库尔特 · 冯内古特的《故事形状101》的概念。

For my purposes when designing simple stories in gamification scenarios I use two simple (and I do mean simple) variations of what I call the Soap Hero’s Journey.

在我设计游戏化场景中的简单故事时,我使用了两个简单的变体,我称之为肥皂英雄之旅。

The simplest version has four phases. The Calling, The Challenge, The Transformation and The Resolution. The second version adds The Twist after The Transformation. I’ll go into more detail later but suffice to say these are not much different from the simple concept of a story having a start a middle and an end!

最简单的版本有四个阶段。呼唤、挑战、转变与解决。第二个版本在《变形》之后加入了扭转。我稍后会进一步详细介绍,但我只想说,这些与故事的简单概念没有多大区别,故事有开头、中间和结尾!

Bonding Narrative Atoms

结合叙事原子

Back to narrative atoms. Each atom should have a start a middle and an end. This is how they can stand on their own if needed. As I say, in a linear story this is less important, however, if you are creating a branching narrative it is essential.

回到叙事原子。每个原子都应该有一个开始、一个中间和一个结束。这就是他们在需要的时候能够独立自主的方式。正如我所说,在一个线性故事中,这并不重要,但是,如果你要创造一个分支叙事,这是必不可少的。

The first thing you need to know in a non-linear narrative is obvious, how it will begin. This sounds simple, but you could have multiple starting points for your game’s character or characters. After that, you will certainly have many parts to the middle, some the player will see, and some the player might not on the first play through. Finally, there may well be multiple places for the story to end.

在非线性叙事中,你需要知道的第一件事是显而易见的,那就是它将如何开始。这听起来很简单,但是你可以为你的游戏角色设置多个起点。在那之后,你肯定会有很多部分的中间,一些球员会看到,一些球员可能不在第一次发挥通过。最后,这个故事可能有很多地方可以结束。

As the player will be able to navigate through the story in multiple ways, you must know how each branch fits together and how each choice the player makes can affect the outcome of their story.

由于玩家可以通过多种方式浏览整个故事,你必须知道每个分支是如何组合在一起的,以及玩家的每个选择如何影响故事的结果。

This is where considering narrative atoms can help. If each atom has its own start, middle and end it is easier to jump in and out of them at will. As you knit the story together, you can pass events from each atom onto the next one, ensuring that character and plot progression or alteration is kept consistent, without having to create vast quantities of alternative narrative to account for every choice.

这就需要考虑叙事原子的作用了。如果每个原子都有自己的起点、中点和终点,那么就更容易随心所欲地跳进跳出。当你把故事编织在一起时,你可以把事件从每个原子传递到下一个原子,确保角色和情节的发展或改变保持一致,而不必为每个选择创造大量的替代性叙事。

An Example of Simple Narrative Atoms

一个简单的叙事原子的例子

Start 开始

You are in the woods. Ahead of you, there is a fork in the road. You can go left or right. What do you want to do?

你在森林里。在你的前面,有一个岔路口。你可以向左或向右走。你想做什么?

  • Go Left 左转
    • At the fork in the forest, you take the left turn. Ahead of you is a giant monster. It reminds you of ones you used to read about as a child. This is what you had prepared for and you know what you must do. As the beast charges at you, you remember that there is a weak spot on its back, just between its shoulders. All you must do is get your sword in there.

在森林的岔路口,你向左拐。你前面是一个巨大的怪物。它让你想起小时候读过的那些书。这是你已经准备好的,你知道你必须做什么。当野兽冲向你的时候,你记得它的背上有一个弱点,就在它的肩膀之间。你要做的就是把剑插进去。

  • You win 你赢了
    • The fight with the monster will go down in history and the scar that it has left on your cheek will only add to the legend. You can get behind the beast, finding higher ground to attack the weak spot between its shoulders. Once you are sure it was dead, you take its giant teeth as a trophy and continue on the path towards home.

与怪物的战斗将载入史册,它在你脸颊上留下的伤疤只会增加这个传说。你可以躲在野兽后面,找到更高的地方去攻击它肩膀之间的弱点。一旦你确定它已经死了,你就把它巨大的牙齿当作战利品,继续走回家的路。

  • You lose 你输了
    • The fight with the monster will go down in history, but sadly you will be but a footnote. You can get behind the beast, finding higher ground to attack the weak spot between its shoulders, you lunge just a moment too late and are caught by the beast. The last thing you hear is the snap of your neck.

与怪物的战斗将载入史册,但遗憾的是,你将只是一个脚注。你可以躲在野兽后面,找到更高的地方去攻击它肩膀之间的薄弱点,但是你突然冲过去的时候已经太晚了,结果被野兽抓住了。你最后听到的声音就是你脖子的断裂声。

  • Go Right 右转
    • At the fork in the forest, you take the right turn. The sun is shining, and the birds are singing in the trees. As you walk, you pick flowers from the path and collect them in your bag. After several hours of blissful and uneventful travel, you reach home.

在森林的岔路口,你向右拐。阳光明媚,鸟儿在树上歌唱。当你走路的时候,你从小路上摘取花朵,然后把它们放在你的包里。经过几个小时充满喜悦和平静的旅行,你到家了。

Home 家

After your journey, you are elated to be home. Your family is waiting to see you, your children eager to see what you have bought them from your travels.

旅行之后,你为回家而高兴。你的家人在等着看你,你的孩子们渴望看到你在旅途中给他们买了什么。

  • If you fought the beast 如果你战胜了野兽
    • The fight with the monster has taken its toll and your wife is concerned about your cheek, but before she can speak about it, you produce the monster’s teeth from your bag and proudly hand them to the children.

与怪物的战斗已经付出了代价,你的妻子很关心你的脸颊,但是在她说出来之前,你从包里拿出了怪物的牙齿,骄傲地把它们交给了孩子们。

  • If you didn’t fight the beast 如果你不和野兽战斗
    • You turn to your wife and offer her the flowers from your bag, now tied into a beautiful bouquet. For the children, you sit them down to tell them a wonderful story of a hero who must fight a monster in the forest.

你转向你的妻子,把你包里的花递给她,现在已经绑成了一束美丽的花。对于孩子们,你让他们坐下来,给他们讲一个英雄必须在森林里与怪物战斗的精彩故事。

    • With your children happy and your wife just pleased to have you home, you settle in by the fire and sleep peacefully.

孩子们很开心,妻子也很高兴你回家了,你就在炉火旁安顿下来,平静地睡着了。

图示

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Figure 54 Boy Meets Monster, Boy Kills Monster

图54男孩遇见怪物,男孩杀死怪物

 

Each section of the story can stand up on its own, given the context. Each atom explains itself and resolves itself whilst being able to bond with the next part.

根据上下文,故事的每一部分都可以独立成立。每个原子都能解释自身,并在与下一个原子结合的同时解决自身的问题。

Of course, this is very simple and most non-linear narratives will require each atom to have multiple bonding points, where the story can link to other atoms whilst still making sense, passing on critical information to change key parts of the next atom.

当然,这是非常简单的,大多数非线性叙述将要求每个原子有多个键合点,故事可以链接到其他原子,同时仍然有意义,传递关键信息来改变下一个原子的关键部分。

图示

描述已自动生成 For instance, in our little story, if you fight the monster, you could choose to allow the player to then turn back and take the path where they can pick flowers. This would add an extra bond to the monster fight atom and allow the player to experience both parts of the potential endings – giving the wife flowers and the children the teeth. 例如,在我们的小故事中,如果你和怪物战斗,你可以选择让玩家转身回到他们可以摘花的路上。这将增加怪物战斗原子的额外纽带,并允许玩家体验两部分潜在的结局——给妻子鲜花和孩子牙齿

 

Figure 55 Boy Meets Monster, Boy Kills Monster Again

图55男孩遇见怪物,男孩再次杀死怪物

The key is to make sure that each atom can be as self-sufficient in the narrative as possible and that you only must pass essential information to the next atom to make the story continue to be coherent.

关键是要确保每个原子在叙述中尽可能地自给自足,而且你只需要将基本信息传递给下一个原子,这样故事才能保持连贯性。

Learning from Games: Her Story & Gone Home

从游戏中学习: 她的故事和回家

Her Story is the fabulous creation of Sam Barlow. You take the role of investigator, reviewing police archive video footage of a British woman accused of murder. You can access the footage in any order you like, gleaning more clues and information with every video you watch. Sometimes the videos will not make sense until you find the video that came before it, others give you all you need in just a few seconds of footage. The joy is discovering how the story fits together, jumping back and forward through the timeline. New snippets of information give you new ideas on what to search in the archive, leading to many “Ahahaa” moments.

她的故事是山姆 · 巴洛的神话般的创作。你扮演调查员的角色,审查警方存档的一个英国妇女被指控谋杀的录像。你可以按照自己喜欢的顺序获取视频片段,从每个视频中搜集更多的线索和信息。有时候这些视频在你找到之前的视频之前是没有意义的,而其他的视频在几秒钟之内就能满足你所有的需要。乐趣在于发现故事是如何组合在一起的,在时间线上来回跳跃。新的信息片段给你在档案中搜索什么新的想法,导致许多“ Ahahaa”时刻。

The second is a well-loved game, Gone Home from The Fullbright Company, which is a brilliant lesson in narrative design. Like Her Story, Gone Home tells the story in small atoms – fragments of what happened in the house you are exploring. Each scrap of paper, audio recording or newspaper clipping adds something to the story.

第二个是一个很受欢迎的游戏,来自富布赖特公司的《回家》 ,这是一个叙事设计的精彩课程。像她的故事一样,《回家》用小原子讲述了故事——你正在探索的房子里发生的事情的片段。每一小片纸片、录音或剪报都为故事增添了一些内容。

Both experiences, whilst seemingly disjointed, eventually build up a deep and fascinating narrative. Each atom may not seem to be relevant but may combine with another atom to unlock a key plot element or answer to a puzzle. In each case, you do not necessarily have to see everything to complete the game, but to gain full understanding, it does help! You also don’t have to see everything in chronological order, but it can help.

这两个经历,虽然看起来是支离破碎的,但最终建立了一个深刻而迷人的故事。每个原子可能看起来并不相关,但可以与另一个原子结合,解开一个关键的图元或谜题的答案。在每种情况下,你不一定要看完所有的游戏,但要获得充分的理解,它确实有帮助!你也不需要按照时间顺序来看每件事,但是它可以帮助你。

The lesson is that using narrative atoms can help you create incredibly deep narrative experiences that don’t have to follow any path, giving people an opportunity to discover the whole picture in their own unique way!

教训是,使用叙事原子可以帮助你创造难以置信的深刻的叙事经验,不必遵循任何路径,给人们一个机会,发现整个图片在自己独特的方式!

Meaningful Choice

有意义的选择

Heavy Rain. That was the name of the game that first made me understand that meaningful choices could take a game to new levels of immersiveness.

大雨。这是游戏的名字,让我第一次明白,有意义的选择可以把游戏带到新的水平的沉浸感。

If you have never heard of it, Heavy Rain was a PS3 exclusive in 2010 from game makers Quantic Dream. You played the roles of several people through a convoluted mystery. There was the father who had lost his son, the private eye, the reporter and the FBI agent all linked to the mysterious Origami Killer. As the story unfolded, you had to decide how each character acted, how they handled conversations and what choices they made.

如果你从来没有听说过,《暴雨》是游戏制造商 Quantic Dream 在2010年独家推出的 PS3。你通过一个复杂的神秘故事扮演了几个人的角色。父亲失去了他的儿子,私家侦探,记者和 FBI 探员都与神秘的折纸杀手有关。随着故事的展开,你必须决定每个角色如何行动,他们如何处理对话,以及他们做出了什么选择。

What made this so special was that choices all had consequences. Make the wrong one, and a character could die. Your choices dictated what parts of the story you saw and how it ended. Every decision was critical to how your game played out. In fact, in an interview David Cage, the director of the game, said that he wanted people to only ever play the game once. That way their experience would be unique. When they discussed it with others, they would then find out there were whole sections of the game that they had never seen – so each person’s playthrough would be unique to them.

让这一切如此特别的是,所有的选择都有其后果。做错了一个,一个角色可能会死。你的选择决定了你看到的故事的哪些部分以及故事的结局。每一个决定都对你的比赛结果至关重要。事实上,在一次采访中,游戏的导演大卫 · 凯奇说,他希望人们只玩一次游戏。这样的话,他们的经历将是独一无二的。当他们与其他人讨论这个问题时,他们会发现游戏中有一些部分是他们从未见过的,所以每个人的游戏过程对他们来说都是独一无二的。

More recently games like Walking Dead and The Wolf Among Us from TellTale Games have taken this approach to choices within their games. Each choice you make feels like there is weight behind it, they feel like they have consequences.

最近的游戏,像《行尸走肉》和《我们中的狼》都采用了这种方法来选择他们的游戏。你做的每一个选择都让人感觉背后有重量,他们感觉自己有后果。

My experience is that people like to feel their choices have meaning, they also like to feel that they have choices in the first place. When you look at my User Types or the RAMP framework, Autonomy is one of the key motivators – especially for the Free Spirit type. That does not mean they are the only ones who are motivated by some level of autonomy. If we feel that we have no freedom to move, to choose and be in control of our own destiny – we feel constrained and disengaged from the experience.

我的经验是,人们喜欢感觉他们的选择有意义,他们也喜欢首先感觉到他们有选择。当你看我的用户类型或 RAMP 框架,自治是一个关键的动力-特别是对于自由精神类型。这并不意味着他们是唯一被某种程度的自治所激励的人。如果我们觉得我们没有自由去行动,去选择和控制我们自己的命运,我们就会感到被束缚和脱离经验。

When creating your gamified or game-based solution you should try to build meaningful choices in. The ideal is that choices change the outcomes of the experience, but even if they just feel as though they have meaning that can be enough.

在创建游戏化或基于游戏的解决方案时,您应该尝试在。理想的情况是,选择会改变体验的结果,但即使它们只是觉得自己有意义,这就足够了。

If you have a game-like solution, allow users to choose their own way to play the game. Let them solve problems in multiple ways. In narratives, allow them to choose how to answer questions or where they go next in the narrative (that’s why I love choose your own adventure style narratives!). In pure gamification, allow users to choose what they do next. If it is a learning experience, let them make their own decisions about what they learn next.

如果你有一个类似游戏的解决方案,允许用户选择他们自己的方式来玩游戏。让他们用多种方式解决问题。在叙述中,允许他们选择如何回答问题或者他们在叙述中的下一步行动(这就是为什么我喜欢选择你自己的冒险风格的叙述!).在纯粹的游戏化中,允许用户选择他们接下来要做什么。如果这是一次学习经历,让他们自己决定接下来要学什么。

If that level of freedom is not possible, then you should, at least, make it feel like there are choices and that they affect outcomes. The trick there is to make sure they can’t go back and repeat their actions – thus discovering their original choice did not affect the outcome after all. I have seen this in a lot of games. It feels like you are making decisions that change how the game will play, but then on replays, it turns out that the game would always funnel you down to the same conclusion no matter how you played!

如果这种程度的自由是不可能的,那么你至少应该让它感觉有选择,并且它们会影响结果。这里的诀窍是确保他们不能回到过去重复他们的行为——这样发现他们最初的选择并不影响最终的结果。我在很多比赛中都见过这种情况。感觉就像你正在做一个改变游戏规则的决定,但是在回放的时候,不管你怎么玩,游戏总是会把你引向同一个结论!

Narrative Choice Architecture in Gamification

Gamification 的叙事选择建筑

Combining the concepts of narrative atoms and meaningful choice, we begin to explore narrative choice architecture, where each choice makes a real difference or at least appears to. Here I discuss a few different approaches.

结合叙事原子和有意义的选择的概念,我们开始探索叙事选择的架构,每个选择使一个真正的差异,或至少似乎。在这里,我将讨论几种不同的方法。

When you sit down with a book, you start at the start and then read every page until you get to the end (unless it is a choose your own adventure…). The only choice the reader gets is whether to start the book and read it all the way through or not.

当你坐下来看一本书时,你从开头开始,然后读完每一页直到结尾(除非这是你自己选择的冒险…)。读者得到的唯一选择就是是否开始阅读这本书,然后从头到尾读一遍。

形状, 矩形

描述已自动生成

Figure 56 Simple Architecture 图56简单架构

Games allow you to do more than that for the player. Games allow you to give the player much higher levels of autonomy or agency.

游戏允许你为玩家做更多的事情。游戏允许你给玩家更高的自主权和代理权。

For a sandbox game, like Minecraft, this is quite simple – the player has total freedom as there is no actual end game. There are still choices to be made, but they are not driven by story. How big will my house be, do I dig for gold, do I make a roller coaster? Rather than designing a choice architecture, you just give the player the tools to support them.

对于一个沙盒游戏,像我的世界,这是相当简单的-玩家有完全的自由,因为没有实际的结束游戏。我们仍然需要做出选择,但这些选择不是由故事驱动的。我的房子会有多大,我挖金子,我做过山车吗?与其设计一个可供选择的架构,不如直接给玩家提供支持它们的工具。

However, games with some form of narrative can be made much more interesting by allowing some level of agency beyond the simple “start at the start and end at the end” idea.

然而,游戏与某种形式的叙事可以变得更有趣,允许一定程度的代理超越简单的“开始和结束”的想法。

Fake Choice Architecture

虚假的选择架构

One option that you see is to give players “fake” options or choices. They get the choice to turn left or right at a junction, but really both paths will eventually lead to the same ending. They may experience different events taking the left rather than the right, but the end goal is the same, as we discussed in our Boy Meets Monster example earlier.

你看到的一个选择是给玩家“虚假”的选择或选择。他们可以选择在路口左转或右转,但实际上两条路最终都会走向同一个结局。他们可能会经历不同的事件,向左而不是向右,但最终目标是相同的,正如我们在前面的男孩遇见怪物的例子中所讨论的。

图示

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Figure 57 Simple Fake Choice 图57简单的假选择

This sort of architecture works well in games that are only designed to be played once or where the gameplay is more important than the narrative. An example that comes to mind is that of older first-person shooters. You could choose where to go on some maps or what your path was, but you always ended up in the same place. However, the choice had weight and meaning as it altered the tactics you would use each time you ran through the level.

这种架构很适合那些只能玩一次的游戏,或者游戏性比叙事性更重要的游戏。我们想到的一个例子是老一辈的第一人称射击运动员。你可以在地图上选择去哪里,或者选择你的道路,但是你总是在同一个地方结束。然而,这个选择有重量和意义,因为它改变了你每次通过关卡时使用的战术。

There is nothing wrong with this sort of architecture if you can make the choices feel that they are meaningful and have significance to the game. You can also get very complex, with multiple twists and turns before you come to the inevitable conclusion.

如果你能让这些选择感觉到它们是有意义的,并且对游戏有意义,那么这种架构没有什么错。你也可能会变得非常复杂,在得出不可避免的结论之前,会经历多次曲折和转折。

图示

描述已自动生成

 

 

 

 

Figure 58 Complex Fake Choice 图58复杂的假选择

A game that makes good use of this would be Tell Tale’s Walking Dead. Every choice you make alters the way the game will play. Who will live, who will die, how people react to you. However, the conclusion is always just about the same. You may have fewer people left and there may be some strained relationships, but the end of the game is the same each time.

一个充分利用这一点的游戏是《泄密者的行尸走肉》。你的每一个选择都会改变游戏规则。谁会活下来,谁会死去,人们对你有什么反应。然而,结论总是差不多的。你可能只剩下很少的人,也可能会有一些紧张的关系,但是每次比赛的结局都是一样的。

Real Choice Architecture

真正的选择架构

The alternative to the fake choice architecture is real choice architecture. Here the player’s actions have real significance to how the game will play. A simple example would be the player back at the junction in boy meets monster. They can go left or right. Either choice in this architecture gives a totally different outcome for the player. The choice they make has real meaning to the rest of the game.

替代虚假选择架构的是真实选择架构。在这里,玩家的行为对游戏将如何进行有着真正的意义。一个简单的例子就是玩家回到男孩遇见怪物的路口。它们可以向左或向右。在这个架构中的任何一个选择都会给玩家一个完全不同的结果。他们所做的选择对于游戏的其他部分有着真正的意义。

图示

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Figure 59 Simple Real Choice 图59简单真实选择

The significance can be less obvious than that of course. If you think about RPG games and how you can interact with non-playable characters (NPCs).

当然,其重要性可能没有那么明显。如果您考虑 RPG 游戏以及如何与不可播放的角色(npc)进行交互。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区 Very often the choices you make in your dialog will determine how the NPC will react to you not just in that conversation, but later in the game. A simple choice to be aggressive could turn a whole faction against you, altering the whole balance of the game. Suddenly seemingly simple interaction become deeply meaningful to the game. 很多时候,你在对话中所做的选择将决定 NPC 不仅在对话中,而且在游戏的后期对你的反应。一个简单的选择是侵略可以使整个阵营反对你,改变整个游戏的平衡。突然间,看似简单的互动变得对游戏有着深刻的意义

 

Figure 60 Complex Real Choice 图60复杂实数选择

Heavy Rain was a great example of this more complex choice architecture. There were many endings that could only be seen if you made specific sets of choices along the way.

《暴雨》就是这种更复杂的选择架构的一个很好的例子。有很多结局,只有当你一路做出特定的选择时,才能看到。

Choice Architecture and Gamification

选择架构和游戏化

In gamification, it appears the choice architecture is straightforward. You need users to perform certain tasks, for which there will be some sort of reward. However, it doesn’t need to be that simple. You can design the user journey so that they can make choices along the way.

在游戏化中,选择架构似乎很简单。您需要用户执行某些任务,这些任务会得到某种回报。然而,事情并不需要那么简单。你可以设计用户旅程,这样他们就可以在旅途中做出选择。

The outcome is likely going to need to be the same for each user, but if it is a gamified system, the likelihood is they will only experience it once anyway!  Add things in that are just for fun, but like a video game side mission, are totally optional.

结果可能对每个用户来说都是一样的,但是如果这是一个游戏化的系统,那么他们很可能只会体验一次!添加的东西,只是为了好玩,但像视频游戏的一方任务,是完全可选的。

Create simple narratives and stories that are affected by certain decisions but make them have some effect on the outcome. I remember taking a “gamified” course. At the start, you chose your team and along the way you had the option to collect certain items. It seemed great, until the end – at which point it turned out that none of the choices you made had any influence on the outcome at all. All it had to do was unlock a simple message or change the last image, but no – nothing. I have no idea what the course was teaching, all I remember is the outrage I felt at being tricked into doing more than was essential because it felt like my choices may have some importance!

创造一些简单的叙述和故事,这些叙述和故事会受到某些决定的影响,但是它们会对结果产生一些影响。我记得参加了一个“游戏化”的课程。一开始,你选择了你的团队,一路上你可以选择收集某些物品。这看起来很棒,直到最后,你所做的选择对结果没有任何影响。它所要做的就是解锁一个简单的消息或者改变最后的图像,但是什么也不做。我不知道这门课程教的是什么,我只记得我被骗去做一些不必要的事情而感到愤怒,因为我觉得我的选择可能有一些重要性!

“Choices do not need to lead to alternative endings, just alternative experiences.”

“选择不一定会导致不同的结局,只是不同的经历。”

 

The Soap Hero’s Journey

肥皂英雄的旅程

Now that we have an idea of how to construct the individual moments of the narrative, we need to have some idea of how it will all come together in a real story. I mentioned the simple narrative model I often use, the soap hero’s journey. I use this because it is easy to remember and is also the core of most short storytelling arcs – such as soap operas.

现在我们已经知道了如何构建叙事中的个别时刻,我们需要知道如何在一个真实的故事中将所有的时刻结合在一起。我提到了我经常使用的简单的叙事模式,肥皂剧英雄的旅程。我用它是因为它很容易记住,也是大多数短故事弧的核心——比如肥皂剧。

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 61 The Soap Hero’s Journey

图61肥皂英雄的旅程

 

  • The Call 电话
    • The event that triggers the characters to start the journey

触发字符开始旅程的事件

    • Plot 剧情
  • The Challenge 挑战
    • Conflicts, difficulties, tasks that the characters must overcome.

冲突,困难,角色必须克服的任务。

  • The Transformation 转变
    • The change that happens to the characters as they learn to overcome the obstacles

角色在学习克服障碍时发生的变化

  • The Twist (optional) 扭转(可选)
    • Often before the full resolution, there is a twist that forces the hero to practice their new skills or re-evaluate something they have learned during the transformation.

通常在完整的解决方案之前,会有一个转折迫使主人公练习他们的新技能或者重新评估他们在转变过程中学到的东西。

  • The Resolution 决议案
    • How all the characters finally overcome or rationalise the challenges.

所有角色如何最终战胜或合理化挑战。

    • Uses all their new knowledge. 使用他们所有的新知识

This is nice and simple and works well with the concept of narrative atoms, keeping each atom of the story simple. This is how soaps like EastEnders do it, keeping each episode a short, self-contained story, whilst still having character progression and plot progression that can feed into the next episode. That way, those who have not seen the soap before can pick it up easily, whilst those that have been watching for years can enjoy it at a deeper level.

这是很好的和简单的工程与叙事原子的概念,保持每个原子的故事简单。像《伦敦东区》这样的肥皂剧就是这样做的,保持每一集都是一个简短的、自成一体的故事,同时角色的发展和情节的发展可以延续到下一集。这样一来,那些以前没有看过肥皂剧的人可以轻易地捡起来,而那些观看了多年的人可以在更深的层次上享受它。

Below is a silly example of an EastEnders plot put into the Soap Hero’s Journey.

下面是《肥皂英雄之旅》中一个伦敦东区人的愚蠢情节的例子。

  • The Call 电话
    • Cat Moon has run away, but Alfie doesn’t know why.

猫月亮跑了,但是阿尔菲不知道为什么。

    • He must find her. 他必须找到她
  • The Challenge 挑战
    • First, he must find out where she has gone.

首先,他必须找出她去了哪里。

    • Then He must find her 那么他必须找到她
    • He must find out why she left

他必须找出她离开的原因

    • Finally, he must bring her home

最后,他必须把她带回家

  • The Transformation 转变
    • He finds out from her friend that she ran away to Spain because he was too controlling

他从她的朋友那里得知她逃到西班牙去了,因为他控制欲太强了

    • Realises he must change how he feels about her past and grow up about it

他意识到自己必须改变对她过去的看法,并在这种看法中成长起来

  • The Twist 扭曲
    • Gets to Spain and discovers it was all a lie, she was still in Walford!

到了西班牙,发现这一切都是谎言,她还在沃尔福德!

  • The Resolution / Redemption 决议/赎回
    • Finds Cat 找到猫
    • Apologises to her and tells her he loves her

向她道歉并告诉她他爱她

    • Convinces her he has changed 让她相信他已经改变了
    • Brings her home and discovers she is pregnant

带她回家,发现她怀孕了

    • Duff Duffs… 达夫 · 达夫斯..

As you can see from the ending there, this narrative atom can neatly bond onto the next episode!

正如你从结尾看到的,这个叙事原子可以巧妙地与下一集结合在一起!

Combining the concepts of Narrative Atoms and a simple story structure like the Soap Hero’s Journey, you can build strong narratives that can bend and twist to your heart’s content. Just keep on top of character and plot development between atoms, and you will be fine!

结合叙事原子的概念和一个简单的故事结构,如肥皂英雄的旅程,你可以建立强大的叙事,可以弯曲和扭曲到你的心的内容。只要在原子之间保持人物和情节发展的顶端,你就会很好!

Keeping It Real in Fantasy Worlds

在幻想世界中保持真实

Whilst we are on the subject of narrative, it makes sense to think a little more about the workings of fantasy worlds. Richard Bartle once raised an interesting point about certain fantasy-based shows and games after watching Game of Thrones. His complaint was that even in fantasy worlds, there need to be rules and those rules need to be stuck to.

虽然我们是在叙事的主题,它是有意义的思考更多的幻想世界的工作方式。理查德 · 巴特尔在看完《权力的游戏》之后,曾经提出过一个有趣的观点,关于某些基于幻想的节目和游戏。他的抱怨是,即使在幻想世界中,也需要有规则,这些规则需要被严格遵守。

Anything that is not explained by the new rules of the fantasy world should then default to the rules of the real world. One example he gave was that of Sam in Game of Thrones. Despite a very active lifestyle in GoT, he doesn’t lose as much weight as you might expect if it were the real world, and there is no explanation for why that may be.

任何不能用幻想世界的新规则来解释的东西都应该默认遵守现实世界的规则。他举的一个例子是《权力的游戏》中的山姆。尽管在《 GoT 》中他的生活方式非常活跃,但如果是在现实世界中,他的体重并没有像你想象的那样减少,而且也没有解释为什么会这样。

You can understand and accept the existence of magic and dragons, because the narrative introduces them early on – so they are established as part of the rules of the world. However, lack of weight loss in Sam’s instance seems to be very unlikely as no rules have been introduced that would explain how weight loss works differently in the world of Westeros.

你可以理解并接受魔法和龙的存在,因为故事很早就介绍了它们——所以它们被确立为世界规则的一部分。然而,在山姆的例子中没有减肥似乎是不太可能的,因为没有任何规则可以解释在维斯特洛的世界中减肥是如何不同的。

It is like standing at a pedestrian crossing and upon pressing the button, all the cars turn in to cabbages.

这就像是站在行人穿越道,按下按钮,所有的车都变成了卷心菜。

There is no reason for this to happen, no explanation in the rules of our world that would lead you to believe that this could happen, so it would stand out to you as being a bit odd!

没有理由会发生这样的事情,在我们的世界规则中没有任何解释会让你相信这会发生,所以你会觉得这有点奇怪!

This brings me to play and gamification.

这让我想到了游戏和游戏化。

As I have introduced earlier, play has fluid meta-rules. However, the big “no no” in play, especially amongst children, is introducing a new rule that is unexpected or does not make sense within the context of the current game.

正如我之前介绍的,游戏有流动的元规则。然而,在游戏中,特别是在孩子们之间,一个大大的“禁止”是引入了一个新的规则,这个规则是出乎意料的,或者在当前的游戏环境中是没有意义的。

Playing “Rock, Paper, Scissors” and choosing a bazooka is a sure-fire way to get tears from a young child! That is not to say that you can’t play like that. My kids play “Rock, Paper, Anything” and you get some truly odd arguments over whether Harry Potter could beat a space tank…. However, this is fine, because they set the expectation that anything goes at the start – not half way through.

玩“石头,剪刀,布”和选择火箭筒是一个肯定火力的方式得到一个小孩的眼泪!这并不是说你不能那样打球。我的孩子们玩“石头,纸张,任何东西”,你会得到一些真正奇怪的争论是否哈利波特可以击败一个太空坦克..。然而,这是好的,因为他们设置的期望,任何事情都在开始,而不是中途。

World Building in Gamification

Gamification 的世界大厦

In gamification, we don’t spend enough time considering the worlds we create because we don’t see them as worlds in that sense. Often, they are just pictures and narratives that link content together. We forget that the narrative alone creates a world for the user to engage with and that world needs to be consistent and have rules just like any other virtual or fantasy world does!

在游戏化中,我们没有花足够的时间考虑我们创造的世界,因为我们没有把它们看作是那种意义上的世界。通常,它们只是把内容连接在一起的图片和故事。我们忘记了,叙事本身就为用户创造了一个世界,而这个世界需要一致性,需要像其他虚拟或幻想世界一样有规则!

The first few screens set the expectation for the rest of the experience. If you start with all singing all dancing graphics, the user will expect those throughout. If the narrative talks about being a mild-mannered account in an office much like the player’s own, they won’t be expecting a magical warlock to suddenly appear. That is not to say that you can’t do that, but the rest of the narrative needs to explain it and reset the expectations of the player.

前几个屏幕设置了对其余体验的期望。如果你开始唱所有跳舞的图形,用户将期待这些贯穿始终。如果故事讲述的是在一个和玩家自己的办公室非常相似的温文尔雅的办公室,他们不会期待一个魔法术士突然出现。这并不是说你不能这么做,但是故事的其余部分需要解释它,重置玩家的期望。

The Unintended Consequences of Minor Details!

小细节的意外后果

When creating a gamified solution, spend time thinking about the rules of any worlds you are creating. If you are creating a theme, what would the expected rules be? If you have a medieval them, your players would not expect or accept aeroplanes being in the narrative. If the players are trapped in a building, they would not expect there to be a well in the middle of the 5th floor.

当创建一个游戏化的解决方案时,花些时间思考你正在创建的任何世界的规则。如果你正在创建一个主题,预期的规则是什么?如果你有一个中世纪的故事,你的玩家不会期望或接受飞机出现在故事中。如果球员被困在一个建筑物中,他们不会期望在5楼中间有一口井。

You need to be consistent and mindful of the expectations you set early on and how they will affect the player’s experience. The best case is that unexplainable events will seem odd, the worst is that it will break them out of any immersive state you have managed to induce!

你需要始终如一,留心你早期设定的期望,以及它们将如何影响玩家的经验。最好的情况是无法解释的事件看起来很奇怪,最坏的情况是它将使他们脱离你设法诱导的任何沉浸状态!

Don’t waste all that effort by tripping yourself up on the unintended consequences of seemingly minor details!

不要把所有的努力都浪费在那些看似微不足道的细节上,而把自己绊倒在意外后果上!

There is a great a trope of storytelling linked to minor details called Chekov’s Gun

有一个很大的比喻,讲故事与次要的细节联系起来,称为契科夫的枪

 Anton Chekov, a Russian playwright, stated that if an element of the story is not necessary, remove it. He said;

俄罗斯剧作家安东 · 契科夫(Anton Chekov)表示,如果故事中的某个元素没有必要,就删除它

“One must never place a loaded rifle on the stage if it isn’t going to go off. It’s wrong to make promises you don’t mean to keep.” 102

“如果一支上了膛的步枪不会爆炸,就不能把它放在舞台上。做出你并不想遵守的承诺是错误的。”102

Keep it simple people! 保持简单的人

How to Create Playful Experiences

如何创造有趣的体验

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

When I finally become the Master, my first job (after a little bit of vengeance…) will be to use the ideas in this chapter to create more playful environments for people. It pains me to say, but my Master’s concepts here can help you understand how to create playfulness.

当我最终成为大师时,我的第一项工作(经过一点点的复仇…)将是利用这一章的想法,为人们创造更有趣的环境。虽然我很痛苦,但是我师父的观念可以帮助你们理解如何创造游戏。

Emergence is a well-known concept in game design. Emergent gameplay comes when players interact with the mechanics of the game creating situations that have not been deliberately designed.

涌现在游戏设计中是一个众所周知的概念。当玩家与游戏机制互动时,显露就会出现,而这些机制并不是有意设计的。

For instance, the game may offer several tools to solve a puzzle but allow the player to use them in any way they see fit. If the puzzle requires you to reach an item that is high up, there could be an infinite number of ways to get it. Use a grappling hook, build a tower, make a jetpack and so on.

例如,游戏可能会提供几个工具来解决一个难题,但允许玩家以他们认为合适的任何方式使用它们。如果这个难题需要你到达一个高处的物品,那么有无数种方法可以得到它。使用一个抓钩,建一座塔,做一个喷气背包等等。

Unintentional emergence comes when players use the game world in a way that the designers had never intended. Take for instance a racing game. The idea is to race from point A to point B as fast as possible. However, if players instead decide to chase each other and try and knock each other off the course, that is unintentional emergence. The game designer had not set that up as a deliberate way of playing – however, the mechanics and the rules allow it to happen.

当玩家使用游戏世界的方式是设计师们从未想过的时候,无意识的涌现就出现了。举个例子,一个赛车游戏。这个想法就是从 a 点跑到 b 点,越快越好。然而,如果玩家决定相互追逐并试图将对方撞出球场,那就是无意识的出现。游戏设计者并没有刻意设定这样的游戏方式——然而,游戏的机制和规则允许这样的事情发生。

Minecraft is a fabulous example of both intentional and unintentional emergence in a game environment. Notch created a world with very specific rules that governed how it worked and simple mechanics to play with. Whilst there is a simple core goal, survive, there is so much more that can be done. You must collect wood for instance. You can do this by hand, but once you have some wood you can create a simple tool to help. Tools that are more complex can be created as you collect more raw materials.

《我的世界》是一个游戏环境中有意和无意出现的绝佳例子。Notch 创造了一个有着非常具体规则的世界,这些规则管理着它的工作方式和简单的玩法。虽然有一个简单的核心目标—- 生存,但是还有很多事情可以做。例如,你必须收集木材。你可以用手来做,但是一旦你有了一些木头,你就可以创造一个简单的工具来帮助你。当你收集更多的原材料时,可以创建更复杂的工具。

 

However, there is no one solution to each situation in which you find yourself. Your first shelter can be made in any way you wish out of any material you can find. In effect, you can do almost anything the environmental rules will allow, whilst playing the core game of “survival”.

然而,对于你所处的每一种情况,并没有唯一的解决方案。你的第一个避难所可以用任何你能找到的材料以任何你想要的方式建造。实际上,你可以做任何环境规则允许的事情,同时玩“生存”这个核心游戏。

The unintentional emergence this freedom has born is unlike anything I have previously seen, possibly except for Second Life. People create new games and new ways to play almost every day it seems. From simple races to Hunger Games style multiplayer events. They have created roller coasters, well-known landmarks, computers, recreations of large areas of Rome, films and even entire sections of the world from Game of Thrones and more. This is part of what has made it one of the most popular games of all time!

这种自由所产生的无意识的出现不同于我以前见过的任何东西,可能除了《第二人生》。人们几乎每天都在创造新的游戏和新的玩法。从简单的比赛到《饥饿游戏》风格的多人游戏。他们创造了过山车、著名的地标建筑、电脑、罗马大片地区的再创作、电影,甚至还有《权力的游戏》中世界各地的电影等等。这是使它成为有史以来最受欢迎的游戏之一的部分原因!

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 62 Kings Landing from Game of Thrones

图62《权力的游戏》中的国王登陆

Emergence in Gamification

Gamification 的崛起

It may seem that this is not applicable to gamification. In gamification, we are usually trying to drive certain outcomes or encourage a particular set of behaviours. However, why should that be all that we are doing? If you look at a gamified system, it contains a set of simple rules or mechanics with which the user interacts. In gamification emergence is often considered cheating, but can’t it be more?

这似乎不适用于游戏化。在游戏化中,我们通常试图推动某些结果或鼓励某些特定的行为。然而,为什么这就是我们所做的一切呢?如果您查看一个游戏化的系统,它包含一组用户与之交互的简单规则或机制。在游戏化中出现经常被认为是欺骗,但是它不能更多吗?

Take the unintentional situation that can emerge when the rules allow for an unexpected behaviour. You assign points to people for inviting other people into the system. The intention of the design would be simple. They would expect people to behave in a way they would consider “acceptable”, so maybe inviting 1 to 20 people. However, the rules and mechanics allow for much more than that. A user could invite hundreds of people. They could create a script that invites thousands of people.

以规则允许意外行为时可能出现的无意识情况为例。你为邀请其他人进入系统的人分配分数。设计的目的很简单。他们希望人们的行为能够被他们认为是“可以接受的”,所以可能会邀请1到20个人。然而,规则和机制允许的远不止这些。一个用户可以邀请数百人。他们可以创建一个邀请成千上万人参与的脚本。

Is that cheating? If the rules never stated that there was a limit to the number of people each user could invite, and the mechanics of the system allow it to happen – then no. Really, it is emergence. A user has taken the rules and the mechanics and done something unexpected, but totally allowed!

这算作弊吗?如果规则从来没有规定每个用户可以邀请的人数是有限制的,而且系统的机制允许这种情况发生——那么就没有。事实上,这就是“涌现”。一个用户已经采取了规则和机制,并做了一些意想不到的事情,但完全允许!

The real question is how can we make use of this? Well, the person who wrote a script to email thousands of people, showed some serious initiative and potentially some coding skills that may have been previously unknown to the company.

真正的问题是我们如何利用这一点?那个给成千上万人写脚本的人,表现出了一些严肃的主动性和潜在的一些编程技能,这些技能之前可能是公司所不知道的。

As a gamification designer, we could allow a lack of rigidity in our rules to try to encourage people to come up with creative solutions to the problems we present them.

作为一个游戏化设计师,我们可以允许我们的规则缺乏僵化,鼓励人们为我们提出的问题提出创造性的解决方案。

We must be a little careful that creativity is not seen as cheating though – what is fair game for some is often seen as cheating by others. Where a Player user type may feel that paying for items to get further is fine, an Achiever type may well feel that is cheating.

不过,我们必须小心,不要把创造力视为欺骗——对某些人来说是公平的游戏,但对另一些人来说却常常被视为欺骗。如果一个玩家类型的用户觉得花钱买东西是可以的,那么一个成功者类型的用户可能会觉得这是欺骗。

Another good example is people creating social groups and trading votes, answers, ideas and the like. Again, some may see it as unethical – but if the rules allow it – it is fair game!

另一个很好的例子是人们创建社会团体,交换选票、答案、想法等等。同样,有些人可能认为这是不道德的——但是如果规则允许的话——这是公平的游戏!

Creating a Play-Like Environment

创造一个类似游戏的环境

As discussed already, in play, the goals are often less defined or not consciously apparent. Whilst there may be rules that dictate how play progresses: social rules, physical rules and so on, they are not there to be deliberately challenging or to make play harder.

正如我们已经讨论过的,在游戏中,目标往往不那么明确或者不那么明显。虽然可能有一些规则来决定游戏的进展: 社会规则,物理规则等等,但它们并不是故意挑战或者使游戏更难进行。

To make activities more play-like, you need to drop system rules and goals as much as possible, whilst creating a safe environment.

为了使活动更像游戏,您需要尽可能地放弃系统规则和目标,同时创建一个安全的环境。

Part of what makes play so compelling is that there is a reduced level of real danger to the participants. Animals playing do not tend to hurt each other deliberately; they know that it is play. Kids playing are not afraid of the tower they are building falling. It may be annoying, but it is not going to get them in trouble or cause any real issues. Even in games, dying is often just a matter of losing a life – you can start again.

游戏之所以如此引人注目,部分原因在于参与者面临的真正危险程度降低了。玩耍的动物不会故意伤害彼此,它们知道这是玩耍。玩耍的孩子们不怕他们正在建造的塔楼倒塌。这可能很烦人,但是这不会给他们带来麻烦或者引起任何真正的问题。即使在游戏中,死亡往往只是失去生命的问题——你可以重新开始。

More importantly is that failure leads to learning and improving performance next time, but only if failure does not lead to a harmful punishment.

更重要的是,失败会导致下一次的学习和提高绩效,但前提是失败不会导致有害的惩罚。

In the real world, this all seems a little unrealistic. What company is going to let people just go off and do their own thing without fear of failure? Well, Google for one. You may remember the 80/20 rule they made so famous a few years ago 103? The idea was that 20% of an employee’s time could be spent working on their own ideas and concepts. They did not have to produce anything, as long as they were trying. There was no punishment if their experiments failed, but if they succeeded, they could find a great deal of support. Products like Gmail came out of this, just as an example.

在现实世界中,这一切似乎有点不切实际。什么样的公司会让员工放手去做他们自己的事情而不害怕失败呢?好吧,谷歌就是其中之一。你可能还记得几年前他们制定的80/20法则103吗?他们的想法是,员工20% 的时间可以花在自己的想法和概念上。他们不需要生产任何东西,只要他们在努力。如果他们的实验失败了,他们不会受到惩罚,但是如果他们成功了,他们会得到大量的支持。像 Gmail 这样的产品就是这样诞生的,就是一个例子。

It may not seem like play, but it has play-like elements. There are no system/company set goals (Make a product). There are no rules set by the system/company that make it harder (only use the letter E once per line of code) or system/company defined obstacles (Do it by Friday and within budget). There is a safe environment as failure is not punished and there is no expectation of success. Also, and this is massively important, they had autonomy – they could choose what they wanted to work on and were trusted to get on with it.

它可能看起来不像玩耍,但它有玩耍的元素。没有制度/公司设定的目标(制造产品)。系统/公司没有设置任何规则使其更难(每行代码只使用一次字母 e)或系统/公司定义的障碍(在周五之前完成并且在预算范围内完成)。有一个安全的环境,因为失败不会受到惩罚,也没有成功的期望。而且,这一点非常重要,他们有自主权——他们可以选择自己想做的事情,并且被信任能够继续下去。

This is the application of play for practical purposes. Considering play is generally not a practical form of anything, this should be fairly counter-intuitive and thus awesome!

这就是为了实际目的而玩耍的应用。考虑到玩一般不是一个实际的形式的任何东西,这应该是相当反直观,因此棒极了!

Practical Play

实用游戏

Trust 信任

Trust is massively important in any type of play, practical or otherwise. You have to trust other players and the environment within which you are playing. This is a judgement free zone.

信任在任何类型的游戏中都非常重要,不管是实际的还是其他的。你必须相信其他玩家和你所处的环境。这是一个没有判断力的区域。

Safe Environment 安全的环境

Following on from trust, the safe environment is another huge part of play. In a more practical setting, we are looking for an environment that does not punish failure and where there is no expectation of success (or at least no expectation that you are right or wrong, just that you will learn!)

在信任的基础上,安全的环境是另一个重要组成部分。在一个更实际的环境中,我们正在寻找一个不惩罚失败、不期望成功的环境(或者至少不期望你是对的还是错的,只期望你会学习!)

Autonomy 自主权

Autonomy is important because you can’t be forced to play! You need to allow people to approach everything in their own way and allow experimentation and creativity in solving problems.

自主权很重要,因为你不能被迫去玩!你需要允许人们以他们自己的方式处理每件事情,允许在解决问题时进行实验和创造性。

No Predefined Obstacles 没有预定义的障碍

Contrary to popular belief, play is not devoid of rules, however, the rules are more meta or implicit in play. Think of them as the difference between gravity being an implicit rule compared to “you can only touch the ball with a funny stick to get it in the hole”, which is a much more explicit rule and indeed a predefined obstacle.

与流行的观点相反,游戏并不是没有规则,然而,规则更多的是元规则或者是隐含在游戏中的规则。把它们想象成重力是一个隐含规则与“你只能用一根有趣的棍子触球才能把球打进洞”的区别,后者是一个明确得多的规则,实际上也是一个预定义的障碍。

 

Dynamic Goals 动态目标

Play doesn’t usually have specific goals, but practical play does need some. There may be an overall goal, such as “Design a new process for doing expenses”. During the practical play though, goals need to be adaptable, fluid and dynamic. No waterfall project managers here, please!

游戏通常没有特定的目标,但是实际的游戏确实需要一些。可能会有一个总体目标,比如“设计一个处理费用的新流程”。然而在实际比赛中,进球需要适应性强、流动性强、充满活力。这里没有瀑布项目经理,请!

Lusory Attitude 旅游态度

This is probably the most essential element. Lusory attitude is just a playful mindset, approaching the task with an open and playful frame of mind. Coming to the table with a “this is stupid” attitude will not help at all. Be open to the experiences.

这可能是最基本的要素。贪玩的态度只是一种顽皮的心态,以一种开放和顽皮的心态来完成任务。带着“这太愚蠢了”的态度来到谈判桌前,一点用都没有。敞开心扉去体验。

形状

描述已自动生成

Figure 63 The Practical Play Framework

图63实用游戏框架

How to Handle Cheating 如何处理作弊

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

I never cheat, but that is not to say that some won’t feel that my methods are cheating. At times, cheating is a matter of context and subjective consideration. Cheating or not, I always make sure I understood the rules and where they can be bent.

我从不欺骗,但这并不是说有些人不会觉得我的方法是欺骗。有时候,作弊是一个背景和主观考虑的问题。不管有没有作弊,我总是确保自己明白规则,以及它们可以在哪些方面有所偏差。

 

A question that is often asked is – “what do you do about cheating in a gamified system?”

人们经常问的一个问题是: “在游戏化的系统中,你如何处理作弊行为?”

Let’s look at a real example of observed behaviour within a gamified system. In this case – my blog! I had a trivial layer type of gamification on my blog that rewarded users for simple actions. It was there as a bit of fun for users who wished to engage. However, it did have one user pushing the boundaries of “good” behaviour. Let’s look at the user journey for this person.

让我们来看一个游戏化系统中观察到的行为的真实例子。在这种情况下-我的博客!我在我的博客上有一个微不足道的层级式的游戏化,奖励用户的简单行动。对于那些希望参与的用户来说,这是一种乐趣。然而,它确实有一个用户推动了“良好”行为的界限。让我们看看这个人的用户历程。

At the beginning, they came in as a Player (Consumer type specifically). They were looking to play with the points and badges system, whilst learning how the system all worked. This was the on-boarding phase of their journey.

在开始的时候,他们是以玩家的身份出现的(特别是消费者类型)。他们希望玩积分和徽章系统,同时学习系统是如何工作的。这是他们旅程的登机阶段。

Next, they began to enjoy learning from and exploring the content, putting them into the intrinsic “Free Spirit” and “Achiever” types. This was the immerse phase.

接下来,他们开始享受学习和探索的内容,把他们内在的“自由精神”和“成功者”类型。这是一个沉浸的阶段。

However, the mastery phase took a sharp turn. Rather than staying on for intrinsic reasons, the game took over. Part of the reason for this was a lack of new and challenging content. When asked, the user stated, “The new materials started to dry up, I had no new activity to do, and still I was way behind the number one player”. So rather than being there to learn more about gamification from the content, they decided to learn how the game system worked and how to exploit it. They started a new journey, this time not just as a Player/Exploiter type, but also as a full Disruptor. They wanted to prove the system was wrong whilst still beating it. They sat between Destroyer and Improver.

然而,掌握阶段发生了急转弯。游戏并没有因为内在的原因而继续下去,而是占据了主导地位。部分原因是缺乏新的和具有挑战性的内容。当被问及这个问题时,用户说,“新的材料开始枯竭,我没有新的活动可做,但我仍然远远落后于第一名选手。”。因此,他们决定学习游戏系统是如何工作的,以及如何利用它,而不是从游戏内容中学习更多关于游戏化的知识。他们开始了一个新的旅程,这次不仅仅是作为一个玩家/开拓者类型,而是作为一个完全的破坏者。他们想要证明这个体系是错误的,同时还要击败它。他们坐在毁灭者和即兴表演者之间。

Is It Cheating?

这是作弊吗?

When I talked to them about this on Facebook, one of the issues they raised was the fact that as well as no new materials, they felt unfairly treated by the system. For over a month, a bug had meant they were not getting points for activities. Therefore, they decided that it was fair to game the system to recover the points they felt owed. At first, I thought this was a little bit like not being given a refund for something in a shop and then going and stealing from them until you feel the debt is paid.

当我在 Facebook 上和他们谈论这个问题时,他们提出的一个问题是,除了没有新的材料,他们还感到受到了这个体制的不公平对待。在一个多月的时间里,一个 bug 意味着他们没有得到活动积分。因此,他们决定用这个系统来弥补他们认为欠下的分数是公平的。起初,我觉得这有点像在商店里买东西不退款,然后去偷东西,直到你觉得债务已经还清了。

The thing is; they had not really cheated. The system allowed the user to behave in this way and there were no explicit rules written stating that this sort of behaviour would lead to some kind of penalty. The trouble is that we tend to believe that everyone in the world will behave and adhere to certain social norms; the truth is that this is not the case. Whilst the user may have spoiled the game for others who were playing “fairly”, they got what they wanted – position on the leaderboard.

问题是,他们并没有真的作弊。该系统允许用户以这种方式行事,而且没有明确的规则说明这种行为会导致某种惩罚。问题是,我们倾向于相信世界上的每个人都会遵守某些社会规范,但事实并非如此。虽然用户可能已经破坏了其他人谁玩“公平”的游戏,他们得到了他们想要的排行榜上的位置。

How do you handle this? The first thing is to make sure that if you do not want it to happen, the system does not allow it. One option is to have a system that makes repeated behaviours in a day worth less each time. This makes it pointless to continue spamming. The other is to state clearly, how you expect players to behave and have in place a system to penalise or ban offenders.

你是怎么处理的?首先要确保,如果你不希望它发生,系统不允许它发生。一种选择是建立一个系统,使一天中重复的行为每次都变得更少。这使得继续发送垃圾邮件变得毫无意义。另一个是清楚地说明,你希望球员如何表现,并建立一个惩罚或禁止违规者的制度。

 

Also, remember that different people perceive cheating differently. Professor Richard Bartle has a great presentation on this. 104 

另外,记住不同的人对作弊的看法不同,理查德 · 巴特尔教授对此有很好的阐述

He once said that it is not possible to cheat in a gamified system as you can in a game. In a game, most voluntarily enter a social contract with other players, one that has implicit expectations of behaviour, courteous conduct.

他曾经说过,不可能像在游戏中那样在游戏化的系统中作弊。在一个游戏中,大多数人自愿与其他玩家签订一个社会契约,一个对行为有潜在期望的社会契约,一个有礼貌的行为。

It can be argued that with some gamified systems, you do not do this, especially if users are “forced” into them. Whilst this is true of some systems, enterprise being the biggest case for this, a system such as CaptainUp (a plug and play gamification extension for websites) is voluntary. No one is forcing you to play, so should you be expected to enter the same social contract of implicit expectations as a game?

可以说,对于某些游戏化的系统,您不会这样做,特别是当用户被“强迫”使用它们时。虽然这在一些系统中是正确的,但企业是最大的例子,像 CaptainUp (一个网站即插即用的游戏化扩展)这样的系统是自愿的。没有人强迫你去玩,那么你是否应该像游戏一样进入一个隐含期望的社会契约呢?

I think the answer is yes. Will everyone want to? This whole section proves the answer to that is “No – of course not!”

我认为答案是肯定的。每个人都想这么做吗?整个部分证明了这个问题的答案是“不——当然不是!”

Lessons Learned

经验教训

Make sure that the system does not allow for cheating in the first place – test, test and test some more.

首先要确保系统不允许作弊——测试,测试和测试更多。

Create a simple set of rules that are highly visible to your users. This will give more weight to decisions made about who is “cheating”. You cannot break the rules if there are none!

创建一组简单的规则,这些规则对用户来说非常可见。这将增加关于谁在“欺骗”的决定的权重。如果没有规则,你就不能破坏它!

You need constant fresh content. If you have nothing but the game, then people will just play or leave – they will not stay to learn, as there is nothing to learn! This is where user-generated content can be a huge boost to a system.

你需要不断的新鲜内容。如果你除了游戏什么都没有,那么人们只会玩或离开——他们不会留下来学习,因为没有什么可学的!这就是用户生成内容可以成为一个系统的巨大推动力的地方。

In the end, I removed the user. They were no longer of value to the site and had lost my trust to some extent. Also, their score was unattainable for most players, so was off-putting to them.

最后,我删除了这个用户。他们不再有价值的网站,并失去了我的信任,在某种程度上。而且,他们的分数对于大多数玩家来说是无法达到的,所以对他们来说是令人不快的。

The other interesting thing is that in a weird way, the gamification worked perfectly. The user in question has obviously learned a great deal as they explored the site. I just had no end game planned for them!

另一件有趣的事情是,游戏化以一种奇怪的方式运作得非常完美。当用户浏览这个网站的时候,他显然学到了很多东西。我只是没有为他们计划最后的游戏!

 

How to See it From the User’s 如何从用户的角度看待它
Perspective 透视法

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

Don’t get lost with introspection during your design. Keep in mind that the user may see the solution very differently to you. At least that’s how it seems when I think about my Master’s training methods.

在设计过程中不要迷失在自省中。请记住,用户可能对解决方案的看法与您非常不同。至少当我想到我师父的训练方法时,我是这样认为的。

How the User Views It All

用户如何看待这一切

As a gamification designer, it can be very easy to become caught up in the intricacies of the system. The feedback mechanics, the game mechanics, the economy and the cleverness of it all. It is also easy to think, “This is going to be great” when you have a new idea and then spend too long making the idea real.

作为一个游戏化设计师,它很容易陷入错综复杂的系统中。反馈机制,游戏机制,经济和它的聪明才智。当你有了一个新的想法,然后花了太长的时间使这个想法成为现实时,你也很容易认为,“这将是伟大的”。

What we need to do is step back from time to time and ask; “How will this actually impact the user”?

我们需要做的是时不时地退后一步,问问自己: “这对用户有什么实际影响?”?

For example, you have a fabulous animation that you want to make use of. It fits the overall theme of the gamified solution you are building, and you think that it adds a little bit of playfulness to break up part of the process. Great. However, what does it really give the end user? If it is used once and adds some greater value to the process they are going through by giving a new understanding or insight – then brilliant.

例如,你有一个神话般的动画,你想要利用它。它符合您正在构建的游戏化解决方案的总体主题,并且您认为它增加了一些娱乐性,以打破部分流程。太好了。然而,它真正给终端用户带来了什么呢?如果它被使用一次,并通过给予新的理解或洞察力,为他们正在经历的过程增加一些更大的价值——然后是辉煌的。

If it gives the user a break from a particularity complex part of the process, then okay. However, if it sits there and forces them to watch it, possibly more than once with no option to skip – step away from the idea.

如果它让用户从过程中复杂的特殊部分中解脱出来,那么好吧。然而,如果它坐在那里,强迫他们观看,可能不止一次,没有选择跳过的想法。

You see, you think it is awesome and fun, but the user sees it as something that is getting between them and the end of the process they are going through. They do not really care that you spent 20 hours perfecting the animation. They have no interest that you missed your child’s birthday party to add this bit of light relief just for them. They only care that it added time to a process or, interfered with it.

你看,你认为它很棒,很有趣,但是用户把它看作是介于他们和他们正在经历的过程结束之间的东西。他们并不在乎你花了20个小时来完善动画。他们没有兴趣,你错过了你孩子的生日聚会,添加这一点轻松只是为了他们。他们只关心这会增加进程的时间,或者干扰进程。

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 64 The user doesn’t care!

图64用户不在乎!

How I see it, the player is most impacted by the feedback your system provides. This is what will frame the experience for them and what gives them their sense of progress, achievement, motivation etc.

在我看来,玩家受到你的系统提供的反馈影响最大。这就是他们的经历框架,也是给予他们进步感、成就感、动力感等的东西。

Feedback can be anything from the word “correct” on a test to the outputs of a full virtual economy and the screen flashing and dancing!

反馈可以是任何东西,从单词“正确”的测试到一个完整的虚拟经济的输出和屏幕闪烁和跳舞!

After that, the theme or narrative. Whilst this may not be important to all, it will affect the user in different ways – especially if it is handled badly, think “Skip” button whenever you are using anything that can be voluntarily watched!

在此之后,主题或叙述。虽然这对所有人来说可能并不重要,但是它会以不同的方式影响用户——尤其是如果处理不当,当你使用任何可以自愿观看的内容时,请考虑“跳过”按钮!

Components are objects like progress bars and the like. Whilst they are part of feedback, the design, bells and whistles of them is not always that important to the user – just as long as they work and don’t interfere!

组件是类似于进度条之类的对象。虽然它们是反馈的一部分,但是它们的设计、铃声和哨声对于用户来说并不总是那么重要——只要它们工作而且不干扰就行!

Finally, the rules and the mechanics. As we have seen in previous chapters, these are what makes the system work. They define how the system will feedback based on the user’s actions. The user does not care about this – they will only notice the existence of the mechanics and rules if they interfere with completing their assigned tasks or don’t work properly!

最后是规则和机制。正如我们在前面的章节中所看到的,这些就是使系统工作的原因。它们定义了系统将如何根据用户的行为进行反馈。用户并不关心这个-他们只会注意到存在的机制和规则,如果他们干扰完成他们分配的任务或不能正常工作!

Sadly, the fact of the matter is, the user does not care how clever the designers were. They just want a system that works and that is usable. As a designer, your problems are not the user’s problems. However, the user’s problems are most definitely your problems!

可悲的是,事实是,用户并不在乎设计师有多聪明。他们只是想要一个有效的系统,而且是可用的。作为一个设计师,你的问题不是用户的问题。然而,用户的问题绝对是你的问题!

 

Gamification Mechanics and 游戏化机制
Elements 元素

 

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Here are some elements that my Master feels support his User Types and can improve your gamified systems. I rather like Anarchy for disruptors…

这里有一些元素,我的主人觉得支持他的用户类型,并可以改善您的游戏化系统。我更喜欢破坏者的无政府状态..。

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Earlier in the book, I introduced game mechanics. Now, let’s looks at some gamification mechanics, elements and ideas that you can use in your system. These are broken down into general (can be used to support anyone), schedules (some examples of reward schedules that have already been covered) and what User Type they most support.

在本书的前面,我介绍了游戏机制。现在,让我们看看一些游戏化的机制,元素和想法,你可以在你的系统中使用。这些被分解成一般的(可以用来支持任何人) ,时间表(一些已经被覆盖的奖励时间表的例子)和他们最支持的用户类型。

General

将军

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On-boarding/Tutorials 入职/辅导

No one uses manuals anymore! Help people get used to your system with a nice tutorial or a gentle introduction on how everything works.

现在没人用手册了!通过一个不错的教程或者一个关于一切工作原理的温和的介绍,帮助人们适应你的系统。

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Signposting 路标

Sometimes, even the best people need to be pointed in the right direction. Signpost next actions to help smooth early stages of a journey. Use “just in time” cues to help users who are stuck.

有时候,即使是最优秀的人也需要被引导到正确的方向上。指示牌下一步的行动,以帮助顺利的早期阶段的旅程。使用“及时”提示来帮助陷入困境的用户。

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Loss Aversion 损失厌恶

No one likes to lose anything they have earned. Fear of losing status, friends, points, achievements, possessions, progress etc. can be a powerful reason for people to act.

没有人愿意失去自己应得的东西。害怕失去地位、朋友、分数、成就、财产、进步等等,可以成为人们行动的一个强有力的理由。

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Progress/Feedback 进展/回馈

Progress and feedback come in many forms and have many mechanisms available. All User Types need some sort of measure of progress or feedback, but some types work better than others do.

进步和反馈以多种形式出现,有许多可用的机制。所有用户类型都需要某种程度的进展或反馈,但有些类型比其他类型工作得更好。

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Theme 主题

Give your gamification a theme, often linked with narrative. Can be anything from company values to werewolves. Add a little fantasy; just make sure users can make sense of it.

给你的游戏化设定一个主题,通常与叙述相关。可以是任何东西,从公司价值观到狼人。添加一点幻想; 只是要确保用户能够理解它。

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Narrative/Story 叙事/故事

Tell your story and let people tell theirs. Use gamification to strengthen understanding of your story by involving people. Think like a writer!

讲述你的故事,让人们讲述他们的故事。通过游戏化加强人们对你故事的理解。像作家一样思考!

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Curiosity/Mystery Box 好奇/神秘盒子

Curiosity is a strong force. Not everything has to be fully explained, a little mystery may encourage people in new directions.

好奇心是一种强大的力量。不是每件事情都需要充分解释,一点点神秘感可能会鼓励人们走向新的方向。

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Time Pressure 时间压力

Reducing the amount of time people must do things can focus them on the problem. It can also lead to different decisions.

减少人们必须做事情的时间可以让他们集中精力解决问题。它也可以导致不同的决定。

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Scarcity 稀缺性

Making something rare can make it even more desirable.

制作一些稀有的东西可以让它变得更有吸引力。

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Strategy 策略

Make people think about what they are doing, why they are doing it and how it might affect the outcomes of the game.

让人们思考他们在做什么,他们为什么这么做,以及这会如何影响游戏的结果。

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Flow 流动

Getting the perceived levels of challenge and skill just right can lead to a state of Flow. Balance is the key.

获得恰到好处的挑战和技能的感知水平可以导致心流的状态。平衡是关键。

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Consequences 后果

If the user gets things wrong, what are the consequences? Do they lose a life, points or items they have earned?

如果用户搞错了,后果是什么?他们是否失去了一条生命,一个积分或者一件他们赚来的东西?

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Investment 投资

When people invest time, effort, emotions or money, they will value the outcomes even more.

当人们投入时间、精力、情感或金钱时,他们会更看重结果。

   

Schedules

时间表

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Random Rewards 随机奖励

Surprise and delight people with unexpected rewards. Keep them on their toes and maybe even make them smile.

用意想不到的回报给人们惊喜,让他们保持警惕,甚至让他们微笑。

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Fixed Reward Schedule 固定的奖励计划

Reward people based on defined actions and events. First activity, level up, progression. Useful during on-boarding and to celebrate milestone events.

根据明确的行动和事件奖励员工。第一个活动,水平上升,进展。有用的在登机和庆祝里程碑事件。

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Time Dependent Rewards 时间依赖性奖励

Events that happen at specific times (birthdays etc.) or are only available for a set period of time (e.g. come back each day for a reward). Users must be there to benefit.

在特定时间(生日等)发生的事件,或者只能在特定时间内发生的事件(例如,每天回来领取奖励)。用户必须在那里受益。

   

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Socialiser

社交活动

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Guilds/Teams 专业学会/团队

Let people build close-knit guilds or teams. Small groups can be much more effective than large sprawling ones. Create platforms for collaboration but also pave the way for team-based competitions.

让人们建立紧密联系的行会或团队。小团体比大团体更有效率。为协作创建平台,同时也为基于团队的竞争铺平道路。

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Social Network 社交网络

Allow people to connect and be social with an easy to use and accessible social network. It is can be more fun to play with other people than to play on your own.

允许人们通过一个易于使用和可访问的社交网络进行联系和社交。和别人一起玩比自己一个人玩更有趣。

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Social Status 社会地位

Status can lead to greater visibility for people, creating opportunities to create new relationships. It can also feel good. You can make use of feedback mechanics such as leaderboards and certificates.

地位可以让人们有更大的知名度,创造机会来建立新的关系。它也可以让你感觉良好。您可以利用排行榜和证书等反馈机制。

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Social Discovery 社会发现

A way to find people and to be found is essential for building new relationships. Matching people based on interests and status can all help get people started.

找到人并被发现的方法对于建立新的关系至关重要。基于兴趣和地位的匹配可以帮助人们开始。

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Social Pressure 社会压力

People often don’t like feeling they are the odd one out. In a social environment, this can be used to encourage people to be like their friends. Can demotivate if expectations are unrealistic.

人们通常不喜欢被孤立的感觉。在社会环境中,这可以用来鼓励人们像他们的朋友一样。如果期望是不切实际的,就会失去动力。

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Competition 竞争

Competition gives people a chance to prove themselves against others. It can be a way to win rewards but can also be a place where new friendships and relationships are born.

竞争使人们有机会在别人面前证明自己。它可能是一种赢得奖励的方式,但也可能是一个新的友谊和关系诞生的地方。

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Free spirit

自由的精神

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Exploration 探索

Give your Free Spirits room to move and explore. If you are creating virtual worlds, consider that they will want to find the boundaries and give them something to find.

给你的自由精神空间去移动和探索。如果你正在创建虚拟世界,考虑一下他们会想要找到界限,并给他们一些东西去找。

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Branching Choices 分支选择

Let the user choose their path and destiny. From multiple learning paths to responsive narratives. Remember, choice must be (or at least feel) meaningful to be most effective and appreciated.

让使用者选择他们的道路和命运。从多种学习途径到响应式叙事。记住,选择必须是(或者至少感觉到)有意义的,才能最有效和受到赏识。

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Easter Eggs 复活节彩蛋

Easter eggs are a fun way to reward and surprise people for just having a look around. For some, the harder they are to find, the more exciting it is!

复活节彩蛋是一个有趣的方式来奖励和惊喜的人只是有一个环顾四周。对于一些人来说,他们越难找到,就越令人兴奋!

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Unlockable/Rare Content 不可锁定/稀有内容

Add to the feeling of self-expression and value, by offering unlockable or rare content for Free Spirits to use. Linked to Easter eggs and exploration as well as achievement.

增加自我表达的感觉和价值,通过提供开锁或稀有的内容为自由的精神使用。与复活节彩蛋和探险以及成就有关。

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Creativity Tools 创意工具

Allow people to create their own content and express themselves. This may be for personal gain, for pleasure or to help other people (teaching materials, levels, gear, FAQ etc.).

允许人们创建自己的内容并表达自己。这可能是为了个人利益,娱乐或帮助其他人(教材,水平,齿轮,常见问题等)。

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Customisation 定制

Give people the tools to customise their experience. From avatars to the environment, let them express themselves and choose how they will present themselves to others.

给人们提供工具来定制他们的体验。从化身到环境,让他们表达自己,选择他们将如何展现自己给他人。

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Achiever

成功者

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Challenges 挑战

Challenges help keep people interested, testing their knowledge and allowing them to apply it. Overcoming challenges will make people feel they have earned their achievement.

挑战有助于保持人们的兴趣,测试他们的知识并允许他们应用它。克服挑战会让人们觉得他们已经赢得了他们的成就。

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Certificates 证书

Different from general rewards and trophies, certificates are a physical symbol of mastery and achievement. They carry meaning, status and are useful.

与一般的奖励和奖杯不同,证书是掌握和成就的物理象征。它们具有意义、地位和实用性。

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Learning/New Skills 学习/新技能

What better way to achieve mastery than to learn something new? Give your users the opportunity to learn and expand.

还有什么比学习新东西更好的方法来达到精通呢? 给你的用户学习和扩展的机会。

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Quests 任务

Quests give users a fixed goal to achieve. Often made up of a series of linked challenges, multiplying the feeling of achievement.

任务给用户一个固定的目标去实现。通常由一系列相互关联的挑战组成,成就感倍增。

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Levels/Progression 程度/进展

Levels and goals help to map a user’s progression through a system. It is as important to see where you can go as it is to see where you have been.

级别和目标有助于映射用户在系统中的进展。看看你能去哪里和看看你去过哪里一样重要。

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Boss Battles 老板之战

Boss battles are a chance to consolidate everything you have learned and mastered in one epic challenge. Usually, signals the end of the journey – and the beginning of a new one.

老板战斗是一个机会,巩固一个史诗般的挑战,你所学到和掌握的一切。通常,这是旅程结束的信号,也是新旅程的开始。

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Philanthropists

慈善家

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Meaning/Purpose 意义/目的

Some just need to understand the meaning or the purpose of what they are doing (epic or otherwise). For others, they need to feel they are part of something greater than themselves.

有些人只是需要理解他们所做事情的意义或目的(史诗或其他)。对于其他人来说,他们需要感觉到他们是比自己更伟大的事物的一部分。

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Care-taking 小心照顾

Looking after other people can be very fulfilling. Create roles for administrators, moderators, curators etc. Allow users to take a parental role.

照顾别人是一件很有成就感的事情。为管理员、版主、策展人等创建角色。允许用户扮演父母的角色。

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Access 访问

Access to more features and abilities in a system can give people more ways to help others and to contribute. It also helps make them feel valued. More meaningful if earned.

在一个系统中获得更多的特性和能力可以给人们提供更多的方式来帮助他人和做出贡献。这也有助于让他们感觉到自己的价值。更有意义,如果赢得。

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Collect & Trade 对方付款及贸易

Many people love to collect things. Give them a way to collect and trade items in your system. Helps build relationships and feelings of purpose and value.

许多人喜欢收集东西。给他们一个在你的系统中收集和交易物品的方法。帮助建立人际关系和目的感和价值感。

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Gifting/Sharing 送礼/分享

Allow gifting or sharing of items to other people to help them achieve their goals. Whilst a form of altruism, the potential for reciprocity can be a strong motivator.

允许送礼物或分享物品给其他人,以帮助他们实现目标。作为一种利他主义,潜在的互惠可以成为一个强大的动力。

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Sharing Knowledge 分享知识

For some, helping other people by sharing knowledge with them is its own reward. Build the ability for people to answer questions and teach others.

对于一些人来说,通过与他人分享知识来帮助他人本身就是一种奖励。培养人们回答问题和教导他人的能力。

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Player

玩家

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Points / Experience Points (XP) 积分/经验积分(XP)

Points and XP are feedback mechanics. Can track progress, as well as be used as a way to unlock new things. Award based on achievement or desired behaviour.

积分和 XP 是反馈机制。可以跟踪进度,也可以用作解锁新事物的方式。基于成就或理想行为的奖励。

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Physical Rewards / Prizes 实物奖励/奖品

Physical rewards and prizes can promote lots of activity and when used well, can create engagement. Be careful of promoting quantity over quality.

物理奖励和奖品可以促进许多活动,如果使用得当,可以创造参与。小心重数量轻质量。

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Leaderboards / Ladders 排行榜/梯子

Leaderboards come in different flavours, most commonly relative or absolute. Commonly used to show people how they compare to others and so others can see them. Not for everyone.

排行榜有不同的风格,通常是相对的或绝对的。通常用来向人们展示他们如何与别人比较,这样别人就能看到他们。不是每个人都适合。

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Badges / Achievements 徽章/成就

Badges and achievements are a form of feedback. Award them to people for accomplishments. Use them wisely and in a meaningful way to make them more appreciated.

徽章和成就是一种反馈形式。奖励那些有成就的人。明智地、有意义地使用它们,使它们更受赏识。

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Virtual Economy 虚拟经济

Create a virtual economy and allow people to spend their virtual currency on real or virtual goods. Look into the legalities of this type of system and consider the long term financial costs!

创建一个虚拟经济,并允许人们把他们的虚拟货币花在真实或虚拟的商品上。调查这种类型的系统的法律性质,并考虑长期的财务成本!

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Lottery / Game of Chance 彩票/机会游戏

Lotteries and games of chance are a way to win rewards with very little effort from the user. You have to be in it, to win it though!

彩票和机会游戏是一种赢得奖励的方式,只需要用户很少的努力。你必须参与其中,才能赢得比赛!

 

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Disruptor

破坏者

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Innovation Platform 创新平台

Disruptors think outside the box and boundaries of your system. Give them a way to channel that and you can generate great innovations.

破坏者在你的系统范围之外思考。给他们一个引导的方法,你就可以产生伟大的创新。

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Voting/Voice 投票/发言权

Give people a voice and let them know that it is being heard. Change is much easier if everyone is on the same page.

给人们一个发言的机会,让他们知道自己正在被倾听。如果每个人意见一致,改变就会容易得多。

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Development Tools 开发工具

Think modifications rather than hacking and breaking. Let them develop new add-ons to improve and build on the system.

考虑修改而不是黑客和破坏。让他们开发新的附加组件来改进和构建系统。

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Anonymity 匿名

If you want to encourage total freedom and lack of inhibitions, allow your users to remain anonymous. Be very, very careful as anonymity can bring out the worst in people!

如果你想鼓励完全的自由和无拘无束,允许你的用户保持匿名。要非常,非常小心,因为匿名可以带出人们最坏的一面!

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Light Touch 轻触

Whilst you must have rules, if you are encouraging disruption, apply them with a light touch. See how things play out before jumping in. Keep a watchful eye and listen to the feedback of users.

虽然你必须有一些规则,但是如果你鼓励破坏性的话,你应该轻轻地去应用它们。在跳进去之前先看看事情是怎么发展的。保持警惕并倾听用户的反馈。

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Anarchy 无政府状态

Sometimes you just must burn it all to the ground and start again. Sit back, throw the rulebook out of the window and see what happens! Consider running short “no rules” events.

有时候你必须把一切都烧成灰烬,然后重新开始。坐下来,把规则手册扔出窗外,看看会发生什么!考虑短跑“没有规则”的项目。

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Learning from Games: Exclusivity & Fortnite 从游戏中学习: 排他性和 Fortnite

Mid 2018, gaming phenomenon Fortnite ran an event that signalled the end of their 4th season and a whole new set of clues to what may be coming next.

2018年中期,游戏巨头 Fortnite 举办了一场活动,标志着他们第四季的结束,并为接下来的发展提供了一系列新的线索。

Two weeks prior to the event, players had seen a skull on in-game televisions, which had turned into a countdown – heading towards the 30th of June. The Friday before the event, an in-game message advised players to get into the game on the 30th and look to the sky.

比赛前两周,球员们在游戏内的电视上看到了一个骷髅头,这个骷髅头已经变成了一个倒计时,正朝着6月30日的方向前进。比赛前的星期五,游戏中有一条信息建议运动员在30号进入比赛,仰望天空。

Players who were able to get in then witnessed a rocket launch that tore open an interdimensional rift in the sky.

玩家能够进入,然后目睹了火箭发射撕开了空中的空间裂缝。

It may not seem like much, but to players of Fortnite, this was a “Where were you when it happened” type of moment. A moment that will only happen live once. If you were not there, you will never get to experience it properly.

这看起来不算什么,但是对于 Fortnite 的球员来说,这是一个“事情发生的时候你在哪里”的瞬间。一个只会发生一次的时刻。如果你不在那里,你将永远无法正确地体验它。

It was exclusive! Its exclusivity created a group of people who shared a particular bond formed on the simple basis of “we were there”. It may not seem important, but it is to them in the context of Fortnite.

这是独家新闻!它的排他性创造了一群人,他们分享了一种基于“我们在那里”这一简单基础上形成的特定纽带。这可能看起来并不重要,但对于他们来说,在福特尼特的背景下,这就是重要的。

In gamification it is often easy to lose sight of the fact we are dealing with real people, not just business objectives. They like to feel that those communicating with them, via whatever medium, value them in some way. They also like to feel that they are special!

在游戏化过程中,我们很容易忽视这样一个事实: 我们面对的是真实的人,而不仅仅是商业目标。他们喜欢那些通过任何媒介与他们交流的人,以某种方式评价他们。他们也喜欢感觉自己是特别的!

Implementing Exclusivity in Gamification

在 Gamification 实施排他性

There are many ways to create the feeling of exclusivity in your gamification solutions and they don’t have to be difficult.

在你的游戏化解决方案中,有很多方法可以创造一种排他性的感觉,而且这些方法并不困难。

  • Taking the time to create Easter eggs that only the most dedicated of players will find is a simple way to create that exclusive feeling for some.

花时间制作复活节彩蛋,只有最具献身精神的玩家才会发现,这是一个简单的方法,可以为一些人创造独一无二的感觉。

  • Adding content that only players who have achieved certain things can access. For instance, if you have an avatar in your system, create a special hat that only players who have completed everything by the second Tuesday of the month get to wear.

添加只有已经完成某些事情的玩家才能访问的内容。例如,如果你的系统中有一个虚拟化身,创建一个特殊的帽子,只有在每个月的第二个星期二完成所有任务的玩家才能戴。

  • Taking a leaf out of Fortnite’s book, create events that only happen the once, invite only or time sensitive.

借鉴 Fortnite 的经验,创造只发生一次、只邀请或时间敏感的事件。

  • Creating communication campaigns that target certain players is another. How many emails have you had that say things like “You are invited” or “You have been chosen”. You know that that email has gone to thousands of other people, but it feels personal, special. You were chosen, you are part of the special group.

创建针对特定玩家的交流活动则是另一回事。你收到过多少这样的邮件: “你被邀请了”或者“你被选中了”。你知道这封邮件已经发给了成千上万的其他人,但是它给人的感觉是私人的,特别的。你被选中了,你是特殊群体的一员。

  • Build up curiosity by hinting at things, like the TV screens in Fortnite.

通过暗示事物来培养好奇心,比如 Fortnite 的电视屏幕。

  • Create anticipation! 创造期待

Planning and Implementing your Gamification Design

计划和实施你的游戏化设计

徽标

中度可信度描述已自动生成

 

Gamification Design Framework 游戏化设计框架

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

My Master keeps making new frameworks. Whilst he and Rainbow Unicorn conversed on “holiday”, he once again changed his mind on how to best build gamified solutions. What follows is his latest Gamification Design Framework. Make of it what you will…

我的主人一直在制作新的框架。当他和 Rainbow Unicorn 在“ holiday”上交谈时,他再次改变了对如何最好地构建游戏化解决方案的看法。下面是他最新的游戏化设计框架。随便你怎么想..。

卡通人物

描述已自动生成

Over the years, I have come up with various design frameworks. In the first edition of this book, I included one called the GAME framework, I have since refined and improved this significantly and created the Gamification Design Framework, outlined here.

多年来,我已经想出了各种各样的设计框架。在这本书的第一版中,我包含了一个叫做 GAME 框架的东西,自那以后我对它进行了重大的改进和完善,并创建了游戏化设计框架。

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 65 The Gamification Design Framework

图65游戏化设计框架

It consists of three main phases; Define, Design / Build and Refine. Each phase contains iterative steps to consider as you build your solution. The core of all of these has been discussed in previous chapters, this just helps bring them all together.

它包括三个主要阶段: 定义、设计/构建和精炼。在构建解决方案时,每个阶段都包含需要考虑的迭代步骤。所有这些的核心已经在前面的章节中讨论过了,这只是帮助他们聚集在一起。

Discovery

发现

The discovery phase is all about unearthing the real problem that needs solving and then understanding more about the people you are solving it for. It consists of three mains steps.

发现阶段就是发现真正需要解决的问题,然后更多地了解你解决问题的对象。它由三个主要步骤组成。

Define the Problem

定义问题

I have written about this in the past. What a client wants and what they need are often very different things. The issue they bring to you may be a symptom of something else. You must dig and dig and dig until you can get to the actual problem that needs solving. This is a skill in itself, but remember to constantly ask Why?

我以前写过这方面的文章。客户想要什么和他们需要什么通常是非常不同的东西。他们给你带来的问题可能是其他问题的症状。你必须挖啊挖啊挖,直到你能够找到需要解决的实际问题。这本身就是一项技能,但记住要不断地问为什么?

Define the Users

定义用户

Once you understand the problem, you must understand the people who are going to be involved and using the system. The client may have one idea, but the people on the ground using it may have a totally different one. User research is a very under-rated part of solution design at times. You need to speak to them, run workshops with them and get to know them. Make the effort to understand them and you will be rewarded in heaven – or at least with positive feedback!

一旦理解了问题,就必须理解将要参与和使用该系统的人员。客户可能有一个想法,但实际使用它的人可能有一个完全不同的想法。用户研究有时是解决方案设计中被低估的一部分。你需要与他们交谈,与他们一起举办研讨会,并了解他们。努力去理解他们,你会在天堂得到奖赏——或者至少得到积极的反馈!

Define Success

定义成功

What does winning look like for the client and for the users? Once you understand that, you need to decide what to record and measure to prove success (or disprove).

获胜对客户和用户来说意味着什么?一旦你理解了这一点,你需要决定记录和衡量什么来证明成功(或反驳)。

Design

设计

Design the User Journey

设计用户旅程

Now, designing the User Journey does straddle the define and design phases a little. However. the key here is to understand and start to build the concept of the experiences for each of the five phases of the User Journey; Discover, On-board, Immerse, Master and Replay. You will revisit this during the design phase and you will add to it and probably take away from it – but it is an essential next step in the process.

现在,设计用户之旅确实跨越了一些定义和设计阶段。但是。这里的关键是理解并开始构建用户体验旅程的五个阶段中的每一个阶段的概念: 发现、在线、沉浸、掌握和重播。您将在设计阶段重新审视这个问题,您将对其进行添加,并可能从中获益——但这是该过程中必不可少的下一步。

Next, you are into the nuts and bolts of designing and building the experience. Initially, you will need to look at BMEM; Behaviour, Motivation, Emotion and Mechanics.

接下来,您将进入设计和构建体验的具体细节。首先,你需要学习 BMEM; 行为,动机,情感和机制。

Behaviour

行为

What is it you want your users to do? Some of this will have been addressed in the define phase, but now you need to go into a little more depth. What are the current behaviours and what do they need to be? Is there a large change needed?

您希望您的用户做什么?其中一些问题将在定义阶段解决,但是现在您需要更深入一些。目前的行为是什么,他们需要做什么?是否需要做出重大改变?

Motivation

动机

What motivates the people. Again, you will have covered some of this in the define phase, but now you must dive into it even further. Consider RAMP (relatedness, autonomy, mastery and purpose).

是什么激励着人们。同样,您将在定义阶段介绍其中的一些内容,但现在必须进一步深入研究。考虑 RAMP (相关性、自主性、掌握性和目标)。

Also, don’t forget rewards. A good balance of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards works very well!

同时,不要忘记奖励。内在奖励和外在奖励的良好平衡工作非常好!

Emotions

情绪

What do you want the users to feel when they engage with your gamified system? Should they experience fear, fun, love, humour, family, schadenfreude etc?

当用户使用您的游戏化系统时,您希望他们有什么感受?他们应该经历恐惧、乐趣、爱、幽默、家庭、幸灾乐祸等吗?

Mechanics

机械学

With everything else in place, you can start looking at the mechanics that will drive the system and engage your users. Will you need narratives, strategy, exploration or more?

一切就绪后,您就可以开始研究驱动系统和吸引用户的机制了。你需要叙述、战略、探索还是更多?

Action / Feedback Loops

动作/反馈循环

Discussed in the next section, Action / Feedback loops form the core of your gamified experience. Remember that they consist of a Call to Action, Action, Feedback and potentially a State Change.

在下一节中将讨论,动作/反馈循环构成了游戏化体验的核心。记住,它们包括行动号召、行动、反馈和潜在的国家改变。

Refine

精炼

All good design frameworks require you to iterate and refine your designs, this is no different. As you create new core loops and add new mechanics, you need to be flexible with your approach so that you can change and modify as you go. These days there is no such thing as a finished product!

所有好的设计框架都需要你迭代和完善你的设计,这没有什么不同。当您创建新的核心循环并添加新的机制时,您需要灵活地使用您的方法,以便您可以随时更改和修改。现在没有成品这种东西!

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 66 Gamification Design Framework in Full

图66完整的游戏化设计框架

 

 

How to Keep the User Engaged

如何保持用户参与

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 I train hard, practicing the same activities repeatedly. It is how I improve. As my skills increase, I look for new challenges. My Master used to provide them, but I am beyond those now. 我刻苦训练,反复练习同样的活动。这就是我提高的方式。随着技能的提高,我会寻找新的挑战。我的主人过去常常提供这些,但是我现在已经超越了这些

Action Feedback Loops

动作反馈循环

When we look at the user journey, there comes a point where the user will be “grinding”. This term from games describes performing the same low skill, low-value activity repeatedly to increase your abilities, as we saw in the chapter on Flow. In our framework, this is the point where we move from on-boarding into immersion.

当我们看用户的旅程,有一个点,用户将“研磨”。这个来自游戏的术语描述了重复地执行同样的低技能、低价值的活动来增加你的能力,正如我们在“流”一章中看到的。在我们的框架中,这是我们从入职到沉浸的转折点。

The basic concept is that the user performs an action or undertakes an activity successfully and something happens in the system. This may be a direct reward, an unlock, a change in the way the system behaves for them – anything that has a positive impact and encourages them to continue.

其基本概念是,用户成功地执行了一个操作或进行了一项活动,系统中发生了一些事情。这可能是一个直接的奖励,一个解锁,一个系统行为方式的改变为他们-任何有积极的影响,并鼓励他们继续。

图示

描述已自动生成

Figure 67 Action / Feedback Loops Example

图67动作/反馈循环示例

 

Call to Action

行动号召

The call to action is the instruction or prompt given to the user to do something. For example, a message on their phone to go for a walk.

对操作的调用是给予用户做某事的指令或提示。例如,在手机上留言要出去散步。

User Action

用户操作

This is the action the user then must take. In this case, go for a walk.

这是用户必须执行的操作。

Feedback

反馈

Whilst the user is doing the action, they are provided with feedback. In our walk example, this may be encouragement to keep going or information about how far they have walked.

当用户执行操作时,他们会得到反馈。在我们的步行例子中,这可能是鼓励他们继续前进或者告诉他们已经走了多远。

State Change

状态变化

Eventually, something needs to change to keep the user engaged. This could be, in the case of our walker, an instruction to now walk further distances. In a game, this may be a difficulty increase. The state change then either leads to a new call to action or straight backing to the Action / Feedback loop.

最终,需要改变一些东西来保持用户的参与。对于我们的步行机来说,这可能是一个指令,让我们现在走更远的距离。在游戏中,这可能是一个难度增加。然后状态变化会导致新的 Action 调用或直接回到 Action/Feedback 循环。

 I can feel the pent-up feelings of many people now who are about to scream the words Operant Conditioning at me.

我可以感受到许多人被压抑的情绪,他们现在正准备对我大喊操作制约。

For those who don’t know, this was a form of behaviour modification that was made famous by BF Skinner 105. He conducted experiments that rewarded or punished animals for types of behaviour.

对于那些不知道的人,这是一种行为矫正的形式,由 BF Skinner 105而闻名。他进行了奖励或惩罚动物行为类型的实验。

Pull a lever; get a reward. Pull a lever; maybe get a reward. Push the wrong button; get a mild shock. He called this positive and negative reinforcement.

拉动杠杆,得到奖励。拉一个杠杆,也许能得到奖励。按错了按钮,轻微的电击。他称之为正强化和负强化。

A big argument we have in gamification is that it is often viewed as a new and shiny form of operant conditioning. For the most part, this has seemed to be true in the past, especially in marketing implementations. Click; get a point. Click 10 times; get a badge etc. A big issue here is the lack of any kind of skill or effort needed to get the reward. Thankfully, there are many gamification experts out there doing their best to change that perception.

我们在游戏化中有一个很大的争论,那就是游戏化通常被看作是一种新的、闪亮的操作制约形式。在大多数情况下,这在过去似乎是正确的,特别是在营销实施。点击,得到一个点。点击10次,获得一个徽章等。这里的一个大问题是缺乏获得奖励所需的任何技能或努力。值得庆幸的是,有许多游戏化专家正在努力改变这种看法。

One of the concepts that I am trying to show with this activity loop example is the idea of having to earn access to new features by showing dedication and an increase in skills. Rating reviews or products is not difficult to do.

在这个活动循环示例中,我试图展示的一个概念是,必须通过展示奉献精神和提高技能来获得对新特性的访问权。评级评论或产品并不难做到。

However, it introduces the user to the idea that if they want to do more, they can, if they are willing to put in the effort. Once the user unlocks the ability to add comments, they will then have to work hard and develop new skills to earn the next level of access.

然而,它向用户介绍了这样一个想法: 如果他们愿意付出努力,他们可以做得更多。一旦用户解锁了添加评论的能力,他们将不得不努力工作并开发新的技能来获得下一个级别的访问。

When they are at the point where they can add their own reviews, they still must work hard, as they know others will now be rating and commenting on their work. However, with each increase in their level of access comes a sense of achievement, status, trust and more.

当他们到了可以添加自己的评论的时候,他们仍然必须努力工作,因为他们知道其他人将会对他们的工作进行评价和评论。然而,随着他们接触水平的每一次提高,都会带来一种成就感、地位感、信任感等等。

Again, if someone must earn a reward of some kind, it will be more important to him or her. Just giving people those rewards for activity that requires no level of skill or personal investment, is meaningless because they have not had to invest anything in getting it. Make them work for the rewards and they will value them a great deal more.

同样,如果一个人必须获得某种奖励,这对他或她来说更重要。仅仅给予那些不需要技能或个人投资的活动奖励是没有意义的,因为他们没有为此投入任何东西。让他们为奖励而工作,他们就会更加珍惜这些奖励。

Action / Feedback help drive the user through a journey, but they do not force them. In the end, they must desire the end goal of the journey to put the effort in to get there. Gamification may just remove some of the friction from the journey, lowering barriers.

行动/反馈有助于推动用户完成旅程,但它们不会强迫用户。最后,他们必须渴望旅程的最终目标,付出努力达到那里。游戏化可能只是消除了旅途中的一些摩擦,降低了障碍。

 

How to Balance a Gamified System

如何平衡游戏化系统

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成  There is nothing worse than playing against people who are miles ahead of you in terms of either ability or equipment. It is very demoralising to lose time and time again when in reality, you never have a chance. My Master taught me that many times. 没有什么比与在能力和装备方面领先你数英里的人比赛更糟糕的了。一次又一次地浪费时间是非常令人沮丧的,而事实上,你根本没有机会。我师父教过我很多次

Balancing Gamified Systems

平衡游戏化系统

Take leaderboards as a good example. Very often the people at the top are always the same few names, repeatedly. For most companies, this does not seem to get addressed for some reason. It’s a bit like pitting your local Sunday Dad’s league against Chelsea every week. There is no opportunity for the Sunday players to ever be as good as Chelsea, they will get destroyed week after week until they give up playing. It is totally unfair and unbalanced. Therefore, in organised sports, you have divisions and leagues. You only play against people that you have a fair(ish) chance of beating.

以排行榜为例。很多时候,高层的人总是同样的几个名字,反复出现。对于大多数公司来说,由于某种原因,这个问题似乎没有得到解决。这有点像你们当地的周日爸爸联赛每周都要和切尔西队比赛。周日的球员没有机会像切尔西一样出色,他们会一周又一周地被摧毁,直到他们放弃比赛。这是完全不公平和不平衡的。因此,在有组织的体育运动中,你有分区和联赛。你只和那些你有一定机会打败的人比赛。

Divisions

部门

So, the first tip is if you find this happening, create leagues. Let the best of the best fight it out and let the others prove themselves against people they stand a chance with. If they get to top frequently, give them the opportunity to take on the next division and maybe get promoted. This has an added benefit of creating a pool of people you know are the best at something and (if you take into account the user journey) have become the masters. At this point, you should be trying to get them to give back, to train up those in the lower division.

所以,第一个建议是,如果你发现这种情况发生,建立联盟。让最优秀的人战斗到底,让其他人在他们有机会的人面前证明自己。如果他们经常升到最高职位,给他们机会去下一个部门工作,或许还能得到提升。这样做还有一个额外的好处,那就是创建一个你知道自己是某方面最优秀的人才库(如果你考虑到用户旅程的话) ,这些人已经成为了大师。在这一点上,你应该试着让他们回馈社会,训练那些低级别的人。

Of course, this all relies on transparency and everyone understanding the rules. It is hard to get good at a game when you don’t know the rules!

当然,这一切都依赖于透明度和每个人对规则的理解。如果你不知道游戏规则,你就很难在游戏中取得好成绩!

Handicaps

残疾人

The second tip is to create balanced or relative scores, a bit like a golf handicap. A modifier can be applied to scores to either handicap those who are significantly better, or power up those who are newer or don’t yet have all the required skills. So, for instance, the expert may get 50 points a day, whereas the lower skilled worker gets 30. However, because of the handicap modifier, you could have it set that every 1 point is worth 1.5 to the lower end player, giving them a slight boost (to 45 rather than 30) and helping push them a little higher in the tables. This does run the risk of better players screaming about it being unfair on them though.

第二个技巧是创造平衡的或相对的得分,有点像高尔夫球差点。一个调整可以应用于分数,以阻碍那些显着更好,或权力的那些新的或尚未拥有所有必要的技能。所以,举个例子,专家一天可能得到50分,而低技能工人得到30分。然而,因为障碍调整,你可以设置每1分对于低端玩家来说价值1.5分,给他们一个小小的提升(45分而不是30分) ,并帮助他们在桌面上更高一点。不过,这样做的确有可能让更好的球员大声疾呼,说这对他们不公平。

Levels

水平

You could also balance the game so that early on it is much easier to get points, so new players can quickly gain points, where hardened players need to work harder and demonstrate more skills to get the same number. This is a little like divisions as lower level players are more likely playing “against” other lower player levels, but their points can also begin to look like those of the higher-level players. This relies on keeping the “Flow” of challenge and skill well balanced. Always keeping a challenge, but never pushing the player too far out of their comfort zone or letting them get bored.

你也可以平衡游戏,这样在早期就更容易得分,所以新玩家可以迅速获得分数,而老玩家需要更努力地工作和展示更多的技能来得到相同的数字。这有点像分区,因为低水平的玩家更有可能与其他低水平的玩家进行“对抗”,但是他们的分数也开始看起来像高水平玩家的分数。这依赖于保持挑战的“流动”和技能的良好平衡。总是保持一个挑战,但是不要把玩家推离他们的舒适区太远或者让他们感到无聊。

Team Balancing / Score Normalisation

团队平衡/得分正常化

Finally, team balancing. This is something I have come across a few times, especially in enterprise gamification. I have yet to find the perfect solution! The problem, the company wants departments to compete against each other, however, no department is the same size! So, what you can end up with is a team of 6 competing with a team of 30.

最后,团队平衡。这是我遇到过几次的情况,尤其是在企业游戏化中。我还没有找到完美的解决方案!问题是,公司希望各部门互相竞争,然而,没有一个部门是一样的规模!所以,你最终可以得到一个6人的团队和一个30人的团队竞争。

If your system is collecting points for various activities, it becomes very tough for the smaller team to compete with the larger team. To demonstrate the same activity, a team of 30 only needs 20% of their members to be active!

如果您的系统正在为各种活动收集积分,那么对于较小的团队来说,与较大的团队竞争变得非常困难。为了演示相同的活动,一个30人的团队只需要20% 的成员是活跃的!

The first solution is to measure quality over quantity of activity. However, this still has the same issue. In a team of 30, you only need 20% to produce quality compared to 100% of the team of 6.

第一个解决方案是衡量活动的质量而不是数量。然而,这仍然存在同样的问题。在一个30人的团队中,你只需要20% 就可以生产出高质量的产品,而6人的团队只需要100% 。

Another solution that I have considered but is complicated to really achieve well (I have tried, and it was ok in my tests) is creating normalised scores based on the average team size.

我考虑过的另一个解决方案是根据团队的平均规模创建标准分数,但要想真正取得好的成绩,这个方案很复杂(我试过了,在我的测试中还可以)。

For example. If you have 4 teams of different sizes.

例如,如果你有4个不同规模的团队。

The average team size is calculated as 12. The score modifier for a team is calculated as your team size / the average team size.

球队的平均规模计算为12。一支球队的得分调整值是根据你的球队规模/平均球队规模计算的。

Points are then multiplied by the modifier.

然后将点数与修饰符相乘。

Team Size 团队规模

Team Score 队际得分

Modifier 修饰语

Normalised Score 常态化得分

10

30

1.2

36

5

30

2.4

72

20

30

0.6

18

12

30

1

30

Average Team Size 12 球队平均人数12人

       

This requires great transparency and great communication of the rules to everyone, but it can work.

这需要极大的透明度和规则的良好沟通,每个人,但它可以工作。

Learning from Games: Soda Crush

从游戏中学习: 苏打粉碎

Candy Crush Saga from King games is one of the worlds most played games, boasting 93 million daily players at one point! I have always avoided it, but my wife has been into it for years. Finally, when she was explaining a level on the spin-off game Soda Saga, I cracked and downloaded it.

来自 King 游戏的糖果大爆险是世界上玩得最多的游戏之一,每天有9300万的玩家!我一直避免这样做,但是我妻子已经这样做很多年了。最后,当她向我解释附带游戏 Soda Saga 的一个关卡时,我破解并下载了它。

For those that don’t know, Candy Crush and Soda Saga are a genre of puzzle game called “Match 3”, first popularised by Bejewelled (though Shariki was the first example 106). The basic concept sees you start with a board full of colourful tokens and you must swap two around that are next to each other to form rows of three.  Create a row of three and they disappear, moving all the other tokens around.

对于那些不知道,糖果粉碎传奇和苏打传奇是一种类型的益智游戏称为“匹配3”,首先推广的 Bejewelled (虽然 Shariki 是第一个例子106)。基本概念是,你从一块布满了彩色令牌的板子开始,然后你必须交换两个相邻的周围的令牌,形成三行。创建一行三个符号,它们就消失了,移动所有其他的符号。

King took this idea and turned the dial to 11! It’s that turn of the dial that I want to speak about a bit. That is where they introduced what we would consider to be gamification in a game!

金接受了这个想法,把表盘调到了11!这就是我想谈论的话题。这就是他们在游戏中引入的我们认为是游戏化的东西!

On-boarding

登机

First, on-boarding is handled perfectly. The first few levels introduce you to the basic gameplay, simple images and animations explaining how the game works. Within minutes you feel totally at home playing. As the game progresses it shows you new features, as and when you need them – not before! Not sure what move to make? Wait a few seconds and the game will give you a hint!

首先,登机操作非常完美。前几个关卡向你介绍了基本的游戏性,简单的图片和动画解释了游戏是如何工作的。几分钟之内,你就会感到完全在家里玩耍。随着游戏的进展,它会向你展示新的功能,当你需要它们的时候——而不是以前!不知道该采取什么行动?等待几秒钟,游戏会给你一个提示!

Challenge and Skill

挑战与技巧

Every level is slightly harder than the last, perfectly balancing the challenge with the skill needed, never letting you drop into boredom. That is not to say you don’t get frustrated. Some levels have you challenged for days, but they never make you feel that you can’t do them – just that you need to try one more time to succeed!

每一关都比上一关稍微难一点,完美地平衡挑战和所需的技能,永远不要让你陷入无聊。这并不是说你不会感到沮丧。有些水平你已经挑战了好几天,但是他们从来没有让你觉得你做不到——只是你需要再尝试一次才能成功!

As you progress, new challenges are added to the basic gameplay. Blocks that need to be destroyed, blocks that multiply, blocks that float, blocks that sink. Every few levels there is something new to discover.

随着你的进步,新的挑战被添加到基本的游戏性。需要销毁的积木,成倍增长的积木,漂浮的积木,下沉的积木。每一个层次都有新的发现。

Progress

进步

From the outset, you can see what level you are on and what levels you can head towards. The map is nearly endless with hundreds and hundreds of levels!

从一开始,你就可以看到自己处于什么水平,可以朝什么水平前进。这张地图几乎是无穷无尽的,有成百上千的关卡!

Feedback

反馈

Feedback in Soda Saga is instant and plentiful! From satisfying animations and sounds as lines are made to bonus scores flashing up as you play to full-on, screen clearing explosions! After the level is finished you are shown your score, how well you did in the form of stars (3 being the best) and finally a leaderboard. In fact, the leaderboard is worth mentioning here.

在苏打佐贺的反馈是即时和丰富的!从令人满意的动画和声音作为线的奖金分数闪烁,因为你发挥到全面的,屏幕清除爆炸!等级结束后,你会看到你的分数,你在星级(3分是最好的)中的表现如何,最后是排行榜。事实上,排行榜值得一提。

When the leaderboard is shown at the end of a level, it shows you are the bottom of the table relative to your score. It then shows you rising up and displacing the person with the next lowest score at the top of the visible board. It never makes you feel like you didn’t win or surpass your friends!

当排行榜显示在一个级别的末尾时,它表明你是表格的底部相对于你的分数。然后它会显示你站起来,并取代得分在可见板顶部下一个最低的人。它从来没有让你觉得你没有赢得或超越你的朋友!

Friends

朋友

Soda Crush masterfully combines competition and a feeling of teamwork. For the most part, once connected to Facebook, you are competing with your friends. You always see who of your group has done best on a level. After that, you are shown your position relative to your friends on the leaderboards. However, there are also opportunities to feel like part of a team as certain challenges appear that require you to choose one of four to join.

苏打粉碎巧妙地结合了竞争和团队合作的感觉。在大多数情况下,一旦连接到 Facebook,你就是在和你的朋友竞争。你总是能看到你的团队中谁在某个层面上做得最好。在那之后,你会在排行榜上显示你相对于你朋友的位置。然而,当某些挑战出现,需要你从四个人中选择一个加入时,你也有机会感觉自己是团队的一员。

The challenge may require you to score highly or destroy the most green sweets or create the most fish or any of a dozen other challenges! At the end of each level, your contribution is added to that of other members of the team. So even amid solo competition, you feel like you are part of something larger.

这个挑战可能要求你得高分,或者毁掉最绿色的糖果,或者创造最多的鱼,或者其他一打挑战中的任何一个!在每个级别的末尾,您的贡献将被添加到团队其他成员的贡献中。因此,即使是在独自竞争中,你也会感觉自己是某种更大事物的一部分。

Help / Powerups

帮助/电源

Soda Saga offers you aids as you play, from bonus special sweets to lollipop hammers and free swaps. When you feel like a level is just too hard, you can always use a few special items and powers to help push through. You can earn these specials powers by completing levels or by purchasing them with real money (of course).

苏打世家在你玩耍的时候提供帮助,从奖金特殊的糖果到棒棒糖锤和免费的互换。当你觉得一关太难的时候,你可以使用一些特殊的物品和力量来帮助你完成。你可以通过完成级或者用真金白银购买来获得这些特异能力。

There are also special sweets that can be created by combining more than 3 in a row, creating an extra level of strategy when considering what lines to create.

还有一些特别的糖果可以通过连续组合3个以上来创建,在考虑要创建什么样的行时创建一个额外的策略级别。

Reward Schedules

奖励计划表

Soda Saga makes great use of reward schedules. Killing it by finishing levels without ever losing a life? There is a reward schedule for that! Coming back every day? There is a reward schedule for that! Soda Saga rewards both excellence and consistency.

苏打佐贺充分利用了奖励时间表。通过完成级别而不失去生命来杀死它?这是有奖励计划的!每天都回来?这是有奖励计划的!苏打传奇奖励优秀和一致性。

Player Types

玩家类型

If I was to analyse what types in my HEXAD were catered for I would have to say everyone except for Disruptors.

如果我要分析我的 HEXAD 中的哪些类型是供应的,我必须说除了破坏者之外的所有人。

  • Players have plenty of points and leaderboards positions to play for.

球员有足够的积分和排行榜的位置发挥。

  • Free Spirits have a great deal of autonomy in how they play the game, there are multiple ways to win each map.

自由灵魂在游戏中有很大的自主权—- 每张地图都有多种赢取方式。

  • Achievers have plenty of challenges to overcome and skills to learn.

成功者有很多挑战需要克服,有很多技能需要学习。

  • Socialisers get to see how their friends are doing, creating some friendly competition. On top of that, they get to feel like part of a team in certain challenges.

社交型的人可以看到他们的朋友在做什么,从而创造一些友好的竞争。最重要的是,在某些挑战中,他们会感觉自己是团队的一员。

  • Philanthropists are also catered for as they can donate lives to people in their networks.

慈善家也受到迎合,因为他们可以在自己的网络中为人们捐献生命。

All in all, Soda Saga is full to the brim with lessons for gamification designers. I have not even mentioned the micro narratives! Soda Saga once again proves that gamification designers should play games when they can. After all, our bread and butter is using lessons learned from games. You can’t learn from them if you don’t play them!

总而言之,苏打佐贺充满了游戏化设计师的经验教训。我甚至没有提到微型叙事!苏打佐贺再次证明了游戏化设计者应该尽可能的玩游戏。毕竟,我们的面包和黄油都是从游戏中学到的。如果你不玩它们,你就不能从中学习!

 

Rainbow Unicorn Was Here! ??

彩虹独角兽在这里! ? ?

 

Keeping it Simple 保持简单

 

形状, 多边形

描述已自动生成

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成 Simple things are easier to explain, understand, implement and maintain. Not everything needs to be complicated, just look at my Master… 简单的事情更容易解释、理解、实现和维护。不是所有的事情都需要复杂,只要看看我的师父..

Gamification, when you break it down, is usually used for one reason – to increase engagement with something. You may not have defined engagement as such, you may have spoken about active participation, or learning transfer, or productivity increase. However, they all point in one direction – to encourage people to do more of something or to do it better.

游戏化,当你分解它时,通常只有一个原因——增加对某事的参与度。你可能没有定义这样的参与,你可能说过积极参与,或学习转移,或生产力提高。然而,他们都指向一个方向——鼓励人们做更多的事情或做得更好。

Some of the projects you have done or seen may have been long term focused, looking to increase intrinsic motivation of participants, others may have just been short term campaigns using simple mechanics to reward activity.

你做过或看过的一些项目可能是长期的,旨在增加参与者的内在动力,其他的可能只是短期的活动,使用简单的机制来奖励活动。

In my experience, gamification is mostly used as a way to boost interest in an activity and with that to increase any of the other factors that have been mentioned. Hand in hand with that there is often a level of education included, or on-boarding, to help elevate this to a new level.

根据我的经验,游戏化主要是用来激发人们对某项活动的兴趣,并且增加其他已经提到的因素。与此同时,通常还包括一定程度的教育,或者说入职教育,以帮助将这种教育提升到一个新的水平。

If you consider activities needing interest and ability, like Flow, if a person is lacking interest, however motivated they may be via other factors, they will struggle to do things “happily”.  I like to think that gamification can be used to just nudge the needle on the interest side of the equation.

如果你认为活动需要兴趣和能力,比如“流动”,如果一个人缺乏兴趣,不管他们是通过其他因素激发起来的,他们都会努力“快乐地”做事。我倾向于认为,游戏化可以被用来推动等式的兴趣方向。

Sometimes that little nudge is all it takes to get an activity to happen, then you can work on other ways to get the activity to continue.

有时候,这个小小的推动就足以让一个活动发生,然后你可以尝试其他方法让这个活动继续下去。

 

形状, 圆圈

描述已自动生成

Figure 68 Interest vs Ability 图68兴趣对能力

Recently we had a challenge with my youngest daughter. We wanted her to eat a wider variety of vegetables.  I created a chart and a simple narrative that had her eating vegetables to defeat various Batman villains. It used extrinsic rewards to encourage her to at least try certain vegetables.

最近我们和我最小的女儿遇到了一个挑战。我们想让她吃更多种类的蔬菜。我创建了一个图表和一个简单的故事,让她吃蔬菜来击败各种蝙蝠侠反派角色。它用外在奖励来鼓励她至少尝试一些蔬菜。

In her mind, she lacked both interest and ability. The story line increased her interest so that it presented a challenge to her.

在她看来,她既缺乏兴趣又缺乏能力。故事情节增加了她的兴趣,因此对她提出了一个挑战。

After trying carrots a few times, she was educated enough to know that she had the ability to eat them. Now, I am not saying she was in the “Very Happy” area of the chart because after finding she could eat them, her interest dropped as she realised she didn’t like them much. However, at that point, she had eaten them in six successive meals and could no longer argue that she was unable to eat them!

在尝试了几次胡萝卜后,她受到了足够的教育,知道她有能力吃胡萝卜。现在,我并不是说她在“非常快乐”的区域,因为在发现她可以吃它们后,她的兴趣下降了,因为她意识到她不喜欢它们。然而,在那个时候,她已经连续吃了六顿饭,再也不能说她不能吃了!

You don’t always have to create overly complicated plans. Sometimes you just need to make it all a bit more interesting!

你不必总是制定过于复杂的计划。有时候你只需要让一切变得更有趣一点!

Tying Loyalty into Gamification

把忠诚带入 Gamification

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

Loyalty is important amongst ninjas, but it is not about rewards or bribes. For us it is a deep, emotional connection, relying on trust. Outside of the Ninja Monkey community, value, quality of service, trust and more are essential for fostering loyalty.

对忍者来说,忠诚是很重要的,但这不是奖励或贿赂。对我们来说,这是一种深厚的情感联系,依赖于信任。在 Ninja Monkey 社区之外,价值、服务质量、信任等等对于培养忠诚度至关重要。

Some would do well to remember that.

有些人最好记住这一点。

True loyalty is like true love. It’s irrational, hard to find & needs constant effort

真正的忠诚就像真正的爱情,它是非理性的,很难找到,需要不断的努力

 

A big focus in gamification these days is the concept of Loyalty. It is also an area of distinct misunderstanding if the typical loyalty programme examples are anything to go by!

如今游戏化的一大焦点是忠诚的概念。如果典型的忠诚度计划的例子可以作为参考的话,这也是一个明显的误解领域!

Old School Loyalty

老派的忠诚

When we think of loyalty, especially when we consider it in the context of gamification, we tend to think of loyalty cards, air miles or other point collection systems. You spend £X amount and we will give you points that can go towards other goods or discounts.

当我们想到忠诚度,尤其是当我们考虑到游戏化背景下的忠诚度时,我们倾向于想到忠诚卡、航空里程或其他积分收集系统。你花 x 数额,我们会给你积分,可以去其他商品或折扣。

When I was a kid, we used a petrol station called Texaco. There were two reasons for this. The first, it was on the way home from church on a Saturday evening and second, it was cheaper than other local options. Something they started to do was give you stickers based on how much petrol you bought. These stickers filled up cards, which could then be traded in against goods – the more cards you filled, the better the goods you could trade them in for. Using this method, my Mum and Dad managed to kit out our kitchen with new mugs, new glasses and I even got a Swiss Army Knife out of it!

当我还是个孩子的时候,我们在一个叫德士古的加油站工作。这有两个原因。第一次是在周六晚上从教堂回家的路上,第二次是在比其他地方便宜的时候。他们开始做的一件事就是根据你买了多少汽油给你贴标签。这些贴纸装满了卡片,这些卡片可以用来交换商品——你装的卡片越多,你可以用它们交换的商品就越好。使用这种方法,我的父母设法装备了我们的厨房与新的杯子,新的眼镜,我甚至得到了瑞士军刀它!

All that makes it sound like we were loyal customers of Texaco. The truth of the matter really? It was convenient and cheap. The sticker scheme was a nice extra, but if we were not near home we would not go out of our way to find a Texaco garage for petrol, we would go where ever was close or cheap.

这一切让我们听起来像是德士古的忠实客户。事情的真相是什么?它既方便又便宜。标价计划是一个很好的额外,但如果我们不是在家附近,我们不会走出我们的方式找到一个德士古汽油车库,我们会去任何地方近或便宜。

Real Consumer Loyalty

真正的消费者忠诚度

Loyalty in the consumer market is demonstrated when people will go out of their way to just use a particular product, service or brand. This is irrespective of convenience or price. For example, our Christmas Turkey.

消费者市场的忠诚度体现在人们会不顾一切地使用某种特定的产品、服务或品牌。这与方便性和价格无关。例如,我们的圣诞火鸡。

Every year we buy our Christmas turkey from Graham Turner. He used to run a local butcher shop, just 15 minutes away. However, he changed the shop location to a new area, making his shop less convenient to get to. Even so, we still go there to get our turkey and any decent joints of meat we need. We have a butcher shop less than a 2-minute walk from us and we have two supermarkets less than a 5-minute drive from us. However, we always drive the 25 minutes to Graham. Why? Because he has cultivated loyalty in us. He and his staff make every visit feel special.

每年我们都从格雷厄姆 · 特纳那里买圣诞火鸡。他以前在当地经营一家肉店,离这里只有15分钟的路程。然而,他把店铺的位置改到了一个新的区域,使他的店铺不那么方便到达。即便如此,我们还是会去那里买火鸡和任何我们需要的像样的肉。我们有一个肉店不到2分钟的步行距离,我们有两个超市不到5分钟的车程。然而,我们总是开车25分钟到格雷厄姆。为什么?因为他培养了我们的忠诚。他和他的工作人员使每次访问都感到特别。

They treat us as old friends, greeting us by name or as Sir or Madam. The quality of their products is extremely high, and their customer service is unparalleled. Christmas Eve a few years ago, we got our Turkey and found out, once it was home, that it was not the size we had ordered. We called Graham to complain, he told us to come straight back and he would keep the shop open for us to sort out a replacement – Christmas Eve and he kept the shop open just for us. With service like this, I do not need to collect points to want to keep using Graham!

他们把我们当作老朋友,称呼我们的名字,或称呼我们为先生或夫人。他们的产品质量极高,他们的客户服务是无与伦比的。几年前的圣诞节前夜,我们买了一只火鸡,一到家就发现它不是我们订购的那种尺寸。我们打电话给格雷厄姆投诉,他告诉我们直接回来,他会让商店继续营业,为我们安排一个替代品——平安夜,他让商店继续为我们营业。有了这样的服务,我不需要收集点数就可以继续使用格雷厄姆!

This kind of personal touch keeps people coming back time and time again, the feeling that you are special and important.

这种个人化的接触让人们一次又一次的回来,感觉你是特别的和重要的。

Big brands like Amazon know this as well, making every visit to the Amazon website a more personal experience. Algorithms are used to predict and recommend items that may be of interest to you, which are in my experience very accurate. You are greeted by name in a friendly manner. Emails you receive from them usually have relevance to you, offering tailor made, or seemingly tailor-made, deals that will interest you.

像亚马逊这样的大品牌也知道这一点,使得每次访问亚马逊网站都更具个人体验。算法是用来预测和推荐你可能感兴趣的项目,这在我的经验中是非常准确的。人们以友好的方式用名字问候你。你从他们那里收到的电子邮件通常与你有关,提供量身定做的,或者看似量身定做的交易,会让你感兴趣。

Tesco does the same, using their standard looking loyalty scheme to personalise the offers you get. Their website even states “the more you use your Club-Card the better we can understand the sort of coupons you might like to receive”. They are being honest; “keep using us and we will make sure the service you get will become more and more personalised to what you want”. It’s the difference between getting a voucher for a DVD when you really need one for nappies.

乐购也采取了同样的做法,利用他们标准的忠诚度计划来使你得到的优惠个性化。他们的网站上甚至写道: “你使用的会员卡越多,我们就能更好地了解你可能想要收到的优惠券种类”。他们是诚实的,“继续使用我们,我们将确保你得到的服务将变得越来越个性化,以你想要的”。这就好比当你真的需要一张尿布的时候,你却得到了一张 DVD 的代金券。

Big brands like these can do this because they have huge amounts of data about you. You keep hearing about Big Data, well this is what it can offer the loyalty market – personalisation of everything. Amazon knows what I buy, so can tailor what I see. In 2013, they even patented a concept called “Anticipatory Shipping” 107.

像这样的大品牌之所以能做到这一点,是因为他们拥有关于你的大量数据。你一直听说大数据,这就是它能提供的忠诚度市场-个性化的一切。亚马逊知道我买什么,所以可以裁剪我看到的东西。2013年,他们甚至申请了“预期航运”107的专利。

The concept would see them delivering items even before you have ordered them – that’s how well they feel they know your consumer habits! Tesco knows what I buy online and in-store because I scan my Club-Card after each shop and they can then identify me. It may sound creepy, but it begins to build a picture that allows these brands to make me feel like the centre of the experience.

这个概念将看到他们提供的项目,甚至之前你已经订购了他们-这是他们觉得他们是多么了解你的消费习惯!乐购知道我在网上和店内买了什么,因为我每次逛完店后扫描我的俱乐部卡,他们就能认出我。这听起来可能有点令人毛骨悚然,但它开始营造一种氛围,让这些品牌让我觉得自己是体验的中心。

Consumer loyalty is now about finding out who your customers are, what drives them and using that information to give them what they want and need in a timely, personalised and convenient manner.

消费者忠诚度现在就是找出你的客户是谁,是什么驱使他们,并利用这些信息以及时、个性化和方便的方式给他们提供他们想要的和需要的东西。

Enterprise Loyalty

企业忠诚度

In the enterprise, loyalty is important as well, loyal employees are valuable. They work harder, and they are more likely to stay. However, many mistake loyalty for obligation or even lack of other options. A loyal employee is one who will stay even if they are offered a seemingly better opportunity; because they feel that they are valued and are valuable to the company they are with.

在企业中,忠诚也很重要,忠诚的员工也很有价值。他们工作更努力,也更有可能留下来。然而,许多人把忠诚误解为义务,甚至没有其他选择。一个忠诚的员工即使有更好的机会也会留下来,因为他们觉得自己很有价值,对公司很有价值。

Some may stay because they feel some level of obligation or gratitude towards their employer for employing them though that will not last. Unless they feel valued, they will soon walk.

有些人留下来可能是因为他们对雇用他们的雇主感到某种程度的义务或感激,尽管这种感激不会持续很久。除非他们觉得自己受到重视,否则他们很快就会离开。

In much the same way as Graham Turner makes people feel they are at the centre of the experience when they are in his shop, employers need to make employees feel that they are at the centre of their experience in the company. If they feel like just another cog, they will feel no loyalty to the company at all.

就像格雷厄姆•特纳(Graham Turner)让人们在他的店里感觉自己处于体验的中心一样,雇主需要让员工感觉自己处于公司体验的中心。如果他们觉得自己只是一个小齿轮,他们就会对公司毫无忠诚可言。

Remember, feelings of obligation is not loyalty!

记住,义务感不是忠诚!

Four Loyalty Destinations

四个忠诚度目的地

Barry Kirk of Maritz Motivation Solutions created a neat categorisation of loyalty. 108

Maritz Motivation Solutions 公司的巴里 · 柯克(Barry Kirk)对忠诚度进行了精确的分类

Inertia Loyalty: This is where people stay with something because it is too much effort to leave or change. Think of people in jobs just going through the motions. They may find it convenient to stay or too large a risk or effort to leave.

惯性忠诚: 这是人们停留在一些东西,因为它是太多的努力离开或改变。想想那些在工作中只是走过场的人。他们可能会发现留下来很方便,或者离开的风险太大。

Mercenary Loyalty: Old school loyalty schemes fit here. Buy from us, collect points and get free stuff. My Consumer User Type sits here, and the Texaco stickers are a great example of this.

唯利是图的忠诚: 古老的学校忠诚计划适合这里。从我们这里买东西,收集积分,得到免费的东西。我的消费者用户类型坐在这里,和德士古贴纸是一个很好的例子。

True Loyalty: This is where my loyalty to Graham Turner fits in. I go out of my way to use Graham’s Butcher Shop because of the service, the quality and the experience. He may be more expensive and harder to get to, but that will not stop me! This is what you should be striving for.

真正的忠诚: 这就是我对格雷厄姆 · 特纳的忠诚。我特意去格雷厄姆肉店是因为它的服务、质量和经验。他可能更贵,也更难接近,但这不会阻止我!这才是你应该为之奋斗的。

Cult Loyalty 信徒的忠诚: This is a strange one and one that cannot really be artificially created – it just happens. As Barry says, this is demonstrated by those who tattoo a brand logo to themselves or will only buy a Harley because that expresses deeply who they are. The closest I have seen to this kind of loyalty being manufactured is when Apple created the iPhone. Steve Jobs was often described as a cult leader with his 当前位置这是一个很奇怪的问题,而且不是人工创造出来的——它就是发生了。正如巴里所说,那些在自己身上纹上品牌标志或者只买一辆哈雷摩托的人就证明了这一点,因为这深刻地表达了他们是谁。我所见过的最接近这种忠诚度的产品是苹果公司发明的 iPhone。史蒂夫乔布斯经常被描述为一个邪教领袖与他的
“Reality Distortion Field”. ”现实扭曲场”

 

The iPhone was a bit of leap of faith for Apple – it had to work. They started by making people feel that this was the future, to not have it would be to miss out on the future (Loss Aversion). Once people started to buy them, they made everyone else feel that if they did not have one, they were missing out and a loser (Social Pressure). This social pressure and sense of loss aversion has been continually cycling since the first iPhone was released.

对苹果来说,iPhone 是一次信心的飞跃——它必须能工作。他们一开始让人们觉得这就是未来,如果不这样做,就会错过未来(损失厌恶)。一旦人们开始购买这些产品,他们就会让其他人觉得,如果他们没有这样的产品,他们就会错过,成为一个失败者(社会压力)。自从第一代 iPhone 发布以来,这种社会压力和对损失的厌恶感一直在不断循环。

It has kept people buying the iPhone even though it is considerably more expensive than any other phone on the market – and does considerably less than many other phones!

尽管 iPhone 比市场上任何其他手机都贵得多,但它还是让人们继续购买 iPhone ——而且它的功能也远远低于其他许多手机!

徽标, 公司名称

描述已自动生成

Figure 69 Barry Kirk’s 4 Loyalty Destinations Framework

图69 Barry Kirk 的4个忠诚度目的地框架

Creating loyalty is not easy, but a good place to start is to put the person whose loyalty you desire, back into the centre of the experience.

建立忠诚并不容易,但是一个好的开始是把你渴望的那个人的忠诚放回到体验的中心。

Make them feel that you as a brand, an employer or whatever else you may be, care about them directly and that you value them and understand them. Do not try to bribe them; loyalty must be earned.

让他们感觉到你是一个品牌,一个雇主或者其他任何你可能是的人,直接关心他们,你重视他们,理解他们。不要试图贿赂他们,忠诚必须赢得。

Three States of Engagement and Loyalty

接触与忠诚的三种状态

There are three basic states of Engagement and Loyalty: Not Engaged, Engaged and Loyal.

参与和忠诚有三种基本状态: 不参与、参与和忠诚。

If you were running a shop, these three states would play out as:

如果你在经营一家商店,这三个州的情况如下:

  • Will not shop with you for reason X, Y or Z.

不会因为 x,y 或 z 的原因和你一起购物。

  • Will shop with you because of reason X, Y or Z.

因为 x,y 或 z 的原因,我会和你一起购物。

  • Will shop with you under any circumstance.

在任何情况下都会和你一起购物。

The question is, how do you convince people to shop with you and then how do you convince them to be loyal to you?

问题是,你如何说服人们和你一起购物,然后如何说服他们对你忠诚?

Getting Them Through the Door

让他们走出家门

The reason I use my local shop when I have to get something urgently is convenience. It may not be as good value as the supermarket, but it is easier for me walk to the shop – I am willing to pay extra for the convenience.

我之所以在当地的商店买东西,是因为方便。它可能不像超市那样物美价廉,但是对我来说走路去商店更容易——为了方便我愿意付额外的钱。

However, when I want my weekly shop, I will use the supermarket. There are two reasons for this. The first, it is much better value for that large a set of purchases. The second is that they deliver. Therefore, they make it easy for me to do and they make it a bit cheaper.

然而,当我想要我的每周购物,我会使用超市。这有两个原因。第一,这么大的一套东西更有价值。第二,他们能够兑现承诺。因此,他们使我做起来很容易,而且他们使它更便宜一点。

This gives us a small formula and a chart:

这给了我们一个小公式和一个图表:

Chance of using Shop = Value × Convenience

使用商店的机会 = 价值 × 便利

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Figure 70 Basic Reason to Shop

图70购物的基本理由

We begin to get a picture of when a person will use your shop.

我们开始了解一个人什么时候会使用你的商店。

  • Corner Shop: The convenience outweighs the value.

街角小店: 方便超过价值。

  • Supermarket: The value outweighs convenience. 超级市场: 价值大于便利
  • Supermarket delivery: Value and convenience are both good, it is a no-brainer.

超市配送: 价值和便利都很好,这是一个不用动脑筋的事情。

Now You Have Me, Keep Me!

现在你拥有我,拥有我

That makes sense but does not tell us how to convert an engaged shopper into a loyal shopper. For that, we need something more – the magic sauce if you will. I mentioned that I would go to Graham Turner for my Christmas turkey every time.

这是有道理的,但是并没有告诉我们如何将一个订购者转变为一个忠诚的购物者。为此,我们需要更多的东西——如果你愿意的话,那就是神奇的酱料。我提到我每次都会去格雷厄姆 · 特纳家吃圣诞火鸡。

There are two major reasons. First, the service that I receive when I go; they make the whole experience about me and I feel valued as a customer. The second is the quality of the product. It is less convenient than the supermarket and it is nowhere near the value of the supermarket, but I still use them. The service and the quality lower the barriers of value and convenience in my choice.

有两个主要原因。首先,我去的时候得到的服务; 它们让我有了全部的体验,作为一个顾客,我觉得自己很有价值。第二是产品的质量。它不像超市那么方便,也远不及超市的价值,但我仍然在使用它们。服务和质量降低了我的选择的价值和便利的障碍。

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Figure 71 Quality and Service Creating Loyalty

图71创造忠诚的质量和服务

The quality of the food from Turner’s reduces the effect of convenience and value on my decision of where to shop. However, the service pushes into new territory.

特纳餐厅食物的质量降低了方便性和价值对我购物决定的影响。然而,这项服务进入了一个新的领域。

The service is what makes me personally keep coming back, that is what keeps me loyal. The convenience and value become more a perception than a physical factor. I love the service; I love the quality, so the rest seems to be less of an issue to me.

服务是我个人不断回来的原因,也是让我保持忠诚的原因。方便和价值变得更多的是一种感知而不是一种物理因素。我喜欢这种服务,我喜欢它的质量,所以其他的对我来说似乎不是什么问题。

If we put this into a formula, we get:

如果我们把它放入一个公式中,我们会得到:

Loyalty = (Value × Convenience) × Quality × Service

忠诚 = (价值 × 便利) × 品质 × 服务

How Is this of Use?

这是如何使用的?

Of course, this is all simplified, but it does illustrate a few important considerations with loyalty. It is not good enough to be as good as or a bit better than your competition. You must be much better and way more valuable to people than your competition.

当然,这些都被简化了,但它确实说明了忠诚度的一些重要考虑因素。仅仅比你的竞争对手好或稍微好一点是不够的。你必须比你的竞争对手更优秀,更有价值。

You must find what your unique selling point is and exploit it as much as possible.

你必须找到自己独特的卖点,并尽可能多地利用它。

This is not just applicable to shops; everything where you are trying to gain loyalty will work in a similar way. If you want people to keep coming back to your website, you need to find a unique reason why people will be loyal.

这不仅仅适用于商店,你想要获得忠诚的所有事情都会以同样的方式运作。如果你想让人们继续访问你的网站,你需要找到一个独特的理由,为什么人们会对你忠诚。

Many sites have a great design and quality writing. Maybe yours has advocacy and peer reviews that make it more trusted. That will get people to visit in the first place.

许多网站都有很棒的设计和高质量的文章。也许你的网站拥有宣传和同行评议,这使得它更值得信赖。这将使人们首先来参观。

If that is the case, how about add something more, do weekly competitions, really drive down the effect other barriers have on people coming back.

如果是这样的话,不如再加点什么,每周进行一次比赛,真正降低其他障碍对人们回来的影响。

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Figure 72 Example of Going Further

图72走得更远的例子

Every case is different. However, there are five basic actions you can take to cultivate this sort of loyalty:

每种情况都不一样,但是,你可以采取五种基本的行动来培养这种忠诚度:

  1. Put the customer/user/employee at the centre of everything

把客户/用户/员工放在一切的中心

  1. Make them feel that they are getting value and that they are valued

让他们觉得他们正在获得价值,他们被重视

  1. Give them a reason to trust you and make them feel trusted

给他们一个信任你的理由,让他们觉得你是值得信任的

  1. Give them quality service 给他们优质的服务
  2. Then start icing the cake with more features that people want and love.

然后开始添加更多人们想要和喜爱的功能。

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Figure 73 Key Components of Loyalty

图73忠诚度的关键组成部分

 

Modelling Gamified Systems 模拟游戏化系统

 

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I don’t like spreadsheets, but they can be useful to a gamification designer when planning out point systems, reward paths and the like. I don’t think they will help my Master when my plans come to fruition though.

我不喜欢电子表格,但是对于一个游戏化设计师来说,它们在设计点数系统、奖励路径等方面很有用。我不认为当我的计划实现的时候,他们会帮助我的主人。

 

An essential skill in gamification is being able to model a system and test out how your solution may flow. There are many ways to do this and people all have their favourite tools, but I wanted to share two of my “go-to” tools.

游戏化的一个基本技能是能够建立一个系统模型,并测试你的解决方案如何流动。有很多方法可以做到这一点,人们都有他们最喜欢的工具,但是我想分享我的两个“常用”工具。

Spreadsheets

电子表格

Yep – the least glamorous thing you can probably think of, but spreadsheets are my first port of call for modelling systems, especially if there is a points-based backbone to it.

是的——这可能是你能想到的最不吸引人的事情,但是电子表格是我对建模系统的第一个需求,特别是如果它有一个基于点的主干的话。

With a spreadsheet, it is possible to automate a lot of the donkey work in trying to understand how points will be allocated and importantly, how long different types of users may take to achieve rewards and other goals. For example, the following image (Figure 74) shows a model of potential weekly usage for a highly engaged user over 12 weeks. The next image (Figure 75) shows the usage of a less engaged user.

通过电子表格,我们可以自动化大量繁琐的工作,试图理解如何分配积分,重要的是,不同类型的用户需要多长时间才能达到奖励和其他目标。例如,下面的图像(图74)显示了高度参与用户在12周内的每周潜在使用量模型。下一个图像(图75)显示了一个参与度较低的用户的使用情况。

You can see that the high engagement user will reach far more points over the 12-week period and average far more each week. Does this mean they will exhaust the system too quickly? Does it mean that users with lower engagement levels never have a hope of reaching certain levels?

你可以看到,高参与度的用户在12周的时间里会得到更多的分数,平均每周会得到更多的分数。这是否意味着他们将过快地耗尽整个体系?这是否意味着参与度较低的用户永远不会有希望达到某些水平?

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Figure 74 Example of High Engagement

图74高参与度的例子

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Figure 75 Example of Low Engagement

图75低参与度的例子

Another spreadsheet I use allows me to calculate what points to assign to certain activities and actions in a system based on the value to the user, the value to the system and the effort to the user. This way I can fine tune everything before users get their hands on it.

我使用的另一个电子表格允许我根据给用户的价值、给系统的价值和给用户的工作来计算给系统中的某些活动和操作分配什么点。通过这种方式,我可以在用户使用它之前对所有内容进行微调。

These kinds of models are in no way a replacement for user testing, but it is a way to get a step closer to usable before having to let people loose on your system! 这些类型的模型绝不是用户测试的替代品,但是它是一种在不得不让人们在您的系统上放松之前更接近可用性的方法

Machinations

阴谋

Machinations 阴谋 is a tool created by Joris Dorman’s to help model game mechanics and feedback systems for game designers. It can be found at 是一个由 Joris Dorman 创建的工具,用于帮助模型游戏机制和游戏设计师的反馈系统。你可在以下网址找到https://www.machinations.io/

As of 2018 it has had some great updates and should soon be able to run inside a browser rather than just as a standalone exe or flash file.

截至2018年,它已经有了一些很棒的更新,很快就能在浏览器中运行,而不仅仅是作为一个独立的 exe 或 flash 文件。

I won’t go into detail about how to use it though, as there are already better explanations out there 109. The interactive nature of the models can help you get an idea of how a system will work.

不过,我不会详细说明如何使用它,因为已经有了更好的解释109。模型的交互特性可以帮助您了解系统将如何工作。

I have used it to model everything from basic points-based systems all the way up to resource management games.

我已经用它来建模从基本的点系统到资源管理游戏的一切。

A while back as an experiment, I created a very simple system that showed how a points, ranks and badges solution would work. This was then automated by Mikel Calvo and showed up an interesting concern with the system. After only about 8 days, a determined “player” could collect all the badges! Better to discover that in a simulation than 8 days after launching a £30,000 pilot!

不久前,作为一个实验,我创建了一个非常简单的系统,展示了积分、等级和徽章解决方案是如何工作的。然后由 Mikel Calvo 自动完成,显示出对系统的一种有趣的关注。仅仅8天之后,一个坚定的“玩家”就可以收集所有的徽章!在一次模拟试验中发现这一点要比在发射一个30000个飞行员后的8天内发现更好!

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Figure 76 Machinations model of a simple gamified system

图76简单游戏化系统的机械设计模型

 

Final Thoughts 最后的想法

徽标

中度可信度描述已自动生成

 

Five Steps to a Happier Life with Gamification

通过游戏化获得幸福生活的五个步骤

 

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My master has his ups and downs, but over the years he has unknowingly used five key gamification lessons to lead a happier life. I wish to God he could user them to make my life happier.

我的主人有他的起起落落,但是多年来他不知不觉地用了五个关键的游戏化教训来过上更快乐的生活。我向上帝祈祷,希望他能用它们让我的生活更快乐。

卡通人物

描述已自动生成

Ok, this sounds a little “self helpy”, but it came to me when I was doing a lecture for a group of master’s students at Kings College. I ended the talk, rather by accident, with the following advice

好吧,这听起来有点“自助式”,但它是在我为国王学院的一群硕士生做演讲时想到的。我以下面的建议结束了这次演讲,这完全是偶然的

“Always be sure you know why you are doing things, understand their purpose. It helps to then work towards small goals. That way no task, no matter how big – even the crushing student debt you probably have right now – will be manageable”

“一定要知道你为什么要做这些事情,明白它们的目的。然后,它帮助我们朝着小目标努力。这样一来,不管任务多么艰巨——甚至你现在可能面临的沉重的学生债务——都是可以控制的。”

Anyone who has seen me speak knows that I get quite passionate. What they may not know is that I react to the audience and adapt my talks accordingly. This group were great, and it felt right to give them a little ad-hoc advice. it got me thinking, though, what lessons from gamification am I applying in my own life day to day?

任何看过我演讲的人都知道,我的演讲充满激情。他们可能不知道的是,我会根据听众的反应调整自己的演讲。这个小组很棒,给他们一些特别的建议感觉很正确。不过,这让我开始思考,我每天在自己的生活中应用游戏化的哪些教训?

Goals, Purpose, Challenge, Feedback, Play 目标,目的,挑战,反馈,游戏

Goals

目标

First and foremost – goal setting. I have spoken about goals in the past. Whatever method you wish to use, I personally feel that aiming at small manageable goals is the key. You must have an eye on the big picture, but that can be overwhelming. Break down everything to the smallest achievable goal you can.

首先也是最重要的一点——设定目标。我过去曾谈到过目标。无论你希望使用什么方法,我个人认为,瞄准可管理的小目标是关键。你必须着眼于大局,但这可能会让你不知所措。把所有事情分解成你能达到的最小的目标。

For instance, you must build a website. This can be daunting if there are a lot of sections to create or specific interactivity. Rather than have that in mind, have the first smallest part in mind. What must happen. Well, you probably need to decide what languages to use. Easy. Next, what pages do you need? Simple and it goes on like that, incrementally increasing the difficulty of each task – consider it your user journey towards your main goal! Enrol, Engage, End Game!

例如,你必须建立一个网站。如果有很多部分需要创建或具体的交互性,那么这可能会令人生畏。与其把这些考虑在内,不如把最小的部分考虑在内。必须发生什么。好吧,你可能需要决定使用什么语言。很简单。接下来,你需要哪几页?简单,它继续这样,逐步增加了每个任务的难度-把它看作是您的用户通往您的主要目标的旅程!注册,参与,结束游戏!

Consider a game like Mario. You have your immediate goal – get to the other end of the map without dying. Then you have the level map that shows you other things you will have to do. Then you have your world map to show you everything that is going on. All the while you have an overriding goal – save the Princess.

考虑一下像马里奥这样的游戏。你有你的近期目标——在不死的情况下到达地图的另一端。然后你就有了水平地图,告诉你其他你需要做的事情。然后你就有了你的世界地图来告诉你正在发生的一切。一直以来,你都有一个压倒一切的目标——拯救公主。

Purpose

目的

Next, you need to understand the purpose associated to each goal. I wrote about this recently, purpose whether it is meaningful or altruistic, is essential for happiness. Always ask the question “Why?” Why am I doing this? Why is this important? Then ask “What?” What is the benefit? What is the purpose? What’s in it for me? For instance, when you must build that website you would create the following sentence. Why am I building this website? Why am I building this website and what is in it for me?

接下来,你需要了解每个目标的相关目的。我最近写了一篇关于这个问题的文章,目的,无论是有意义的还是无私的,对于幸福来说都是必不可少的。总是问“为什么?”我为什么要这么做?为什么这很重要?然后问“什么?”有什么好处?目的是什么?这对我有什么好处?例如,当你必须建立那个网站时,你会创建下面的句子。我为什么要建立这个网站?为什么我要建立这个网站,它对我有什么好处?

That answer may well be simple. You are building it because the client has asked you to and you get paid!

这个答案可能很简单。你正在建造它,因为客户要求你这么做,而你得到了报酬!

Again, it goes hand in hand with small goals and understanding where you are and what you are doing.

同样,它与小目标和理解你在哪里和你在做什么密切相关。

Again, back to Mario, you know the answers to both. Why am I running across this map and what will happen if I don’t?

回到马里奥,你知道这两个问题的答案。为什么我要穿过这张地图,如果我不这样做会发生什么?

Because I need to save the Princess. If I don’t, she dies!

因为我要去救公主如果我不去她就死定了!

Challenge

挑战

One of the things that keeps me happy is little challenges, usually, that don’t relate to work. I always have them, whether it is creating a game, writing a book, learning something new etc. It breaks is one of the ways I force my mind to stop churning! I also love a statement from Andrea M. Kuszewski, that you can increase your intelligence by doing things the hard way 56. Rather than use a prebuilt framework that does way more than you need, make it yourself! If you need to throw something in the bin – add an unnecessary obstacle like having to throw the paper across the room. After all, one of the definitions of what makes a game is from Bernard Suits “the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles”.

让我感到快乐的事情之一就是一些小挑战,通常这些挑战与工作无关。无论是创作游戏、写书、学习新东西等等,我总是有这些想法。它的破裂是我强迫我的大脑停止搅动的方式之一!我也喜欢 Andrea m. Kuszewski 的一句话,你可以通过艰难的方式来提高你的智力。与其使用预先构建的框架,不如自己动手做!如果你需要把什么东西扔进垃圾箱,那就增加一个不必要的障碍物,比如不得不把纸扔到房间的另一边。毕竟,一个游戏的定义之一来自于 Bernard Suits 的“克服不必要障碍的自愿尝试”。

Feedback

反馈

Feedback is essential to any good system, even if it is your own internal system! You must know what success looks like and you must be able to measure it! This can be as simple as just getting a new bit of code to work and silently celebrating it, allowing yourself an extra bit of chocolate if you get an assignment finished early, buying that dress you saw because you lost the weight you had aimed for and so on.

反馈对任何好的系统都是必不可少的,即使它是你自己的内部系统!你必须知道什么是成功,你必须能够衡量它!这可以很简单,只需要一点新的代码,然后默默地庆祝,如果你提前完成了任务,给自己多一点巧克力,买你看到的那件衣服,因为你减掉了你想要的体重,等等。

Just remember to make sure that the reward fits the effort of the task/goal.

只要记住确保奖励与任务/目标的努力相匹配。

Play

玩耍

This is the biggest and most important factor that keeps me sane and happy in my life – adding elements of play wherever I can. This can come in various forms. It may be that I stop and play with the kids for instance. It could be that I take a Batman break and do something playful for five minutes to reset my brain a little. I may just approach a new task with a more playful / lusory attitude and make the task more playful even if only in my own mind. Often play is more a state of mind.

这是让我在生活中保持理智和快乐的最大和最重要的因素——尽可能地增加游戏元素。这可以以各种形式出现。例如,我可能会停下来和孩子们一起玩耍。我可以休息一下,做一些好玩的事情,花五分钟来重新调整一下我的大脑。我可能只是以一种更有趣/更有趣的态度来处理一个新任务,并使任务更有趣,即使只是在我自己的脑海中。经常玩更多的是一种心态。

There are many ways that games and gamification can help you in your day to day life, but these are just a few things that I do personally, so know they work!

游戏和游戏化有很多方法可以帮助你的日常生活,但这些只是我个人做的一些事情,所以知道他们的工作!

 

Other Design Tips 其他设计贴士

 

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These tips may well help you in your own designs; they are tried and tested by my Master. I have my own, but you will probably never get to see them.

这些建议可能对你的设计有很大的帮助,它们已经被我的导师试验过了。我也有自己的,但你可能永远也见不到它们。

 

卡通人物

描述已自动生成

Whilst there has been practical advice as we have gone along, there are a few more things that should be considered as you delve into designing your gamification solutions.

虽然我们已经提出了一些实用的建议,但是在你设计你的游戏化解决方案时,还有一些事情是需要考虑的。

Getting to the Real Problem

真正的问题

It is simple to jump to solutioneering as soon as you feel you have a problem that needs fixing, creating the solution before you understand the problem. However, taking a step back and asking 4 simple questions can save you time and money in the long run.

一旦你觉得有问题需要解决,就立即着手解决,在你理解问题之前就创造出解决方案,这很简单。然而,退后一步,问4个简单的问题,从长远来看可以节省你的时间和金钱。

  • “What is the problem” “有什么问题?”
  • “Why do we need to fix it”

“为什么我们需要解决它”

  • “What needs to change to fix it”

“需要改变什么才能解决问题”

  • “How do we do that” “我们该怎么做呢?”

What is the problem?

有什么问题吗?

First, you need to explore What you are wanting to change. This is the easy bit and is likely to change, but it is a start. Be as specific as you can but be open minded as you explore further!

首先,你需要探索你想要改变什么。这是一个简单的部分,可能会发生改变,但这只是一个开始。尽可能具体,但在进一步探索时要保持开放的心态!

Most people already have this in mind when they first go to someone asking for gamification.

大多数人在第一次向别人请求游戏化时就已经想到了这一点。

Why do we need to fix it?

为什么我们需要修复它?

Many gamification projects happen with the best of intentions, but are doomed to fail because no one stops to as the question “Why?”

许多游戏化项目都是怀着最好的意图进行的,但是注定要失败,因为没有人会停下来问“为什么?”

Any behaviour focused intervention needs to have a clear focus, otherwise, you have no hope of solving your problems. You need to have a clear understanding of why you need to make a change. Is there an issue with people using a system? Are people not doing what you expected day to day. Are people not donating to your charity site when you thought they would?

任何针对行为的干预都需要有一个明确的重点,否则,你就没有希望解决你的问题。你需要清楚地理解为什么你需要做出改变。人们使用一个系统是否有问题?人们是不是每天都在做你期望的事情。当你认为人们会向你的慈善网站捐款的时候,他们不会这么做吗?

Very often the answer to the initial what is “We want to improve engagement”. However, that still begs the question “why?” Not just that, it also creates the new question “What is engagement?”

最初的答案往往是“我们希望提高参与度”。然而,这仍然引出了一个问题: “为什么?”不仅如此,它还带来了一个新问题: “什么是参与?”

What needs to change to fix it?

需要改变什么来修复它?

To be successful you must identify what the root problems are, and what needs to change to fix them. If you have decided that people are not using your system because it is too complex, you must ask the question “what needs to change”

要想成功,你必须找出根本问题是什么,以及需要改变什么来解决它们。如果您已经决定人们不使用您的系统,因为它过于复杂,那么您必须问这样一个问题: “需要改变什么?”

What may have looked like a behaviour issue, people were not using the system properly, may be a usability issue. That requires a totally different solution.

看起来像是行为问题,人们没有正确使用系统,可能是可用性问题。这需要一个完全不同的解决方案。

You will cycle between What and Why for a while until you have solid answers to the questions. You can also talk yourself in circles, so need to be pragmatic and occasionally start from scratch!

你将在“为什么”和“为什么”之间循环一段时间,直到你对这些问题有了可靠的答案。你也可以在圈子里自言自语,所以需要务实,偶尔从头开始!

How do we do that?

我们该怎么做呢?

Once you have got your solid answers to

一旦你得到了确切的答案

  • “What is the problem” “有什么问题?”
  • “Why do we need to fix it”

“为什么我们需要解决它”

  • “What needs to change to fix it”

“需要改变什么才能解决问题”

 you can start to look at how to make those changes and gamification may form part of that. Then you can move onto the next phase.

你可以开始考虑如何进行这些改变,游戏化可能是其中的一部分。然后你就可以进入下一个阶段。

Gamification Design Thinking

游戏化设计思维

This is another process I make a lot of use of and is the base for my workshops. This is my interpretation of Design Thinking – a very well-known framework I have mixed it with a few well-known lenses for innovation – again, nothing new. It is presented here just as an aid for those who may not already be using it.

这是我经常使用的另一个过程,也是我工作坊的基础。这就是我对“设计思维”的解释——一个非常著名的框架,我把它和一些著名的创新透镜混合在一起——再说一遍,没有什么新意。在这里提出它只是为那些可能还没有使用它的人提供帮助。

First, here is the basic process of design thinking.

首先,这是设计思维的基本过程。

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Figure 77 Gamification Design Thinking Outline

图77游戏化设计思维大纲

Define and understand the actual problem. Very often, the initial brief does not hold the problem that needs solving! Question, question and re-question and if needs be, re-frame the problem totally.

定义和理解实际问题。很多时候,最初的摘要并不包含需要解决的问题!问题、问题和再问题,如果需要,全面重新构建问题。

Empathise with the various people involved. Design thinking is all about putting the user first. So, consider what types of user you will have, this is not the same as User or Player Types; this is what people need from the system. Who are the users, why are they using the system? What does Mavis, 83 from Wales need, compared to Dave, 23 from Leeds?

同情参与其中的各种人。设计思维就是把用户放在第一位。所以,考虑一下你将拥有什么类型的用户,这不同于用户类型或者播放器类型,这是人们从系统中需要的。谁是用户,他们为什么要使用这个系统?83岁的威尔士人梅维斯需要什么,而23岁的利兹人戴夫需要什么?

Sometimes it is good to survey potential or current users to get an idea of whom they really are and then come up with some average users to role-play with!

有时候,调查潜在用户或者当前用户,了解他们的真实身份,然后找出一些普通用户进行角色扮演,这样做是很好的!

Also, do not forget the stakeholders’ needs in this. What do they want to achieve by gamifying the system? How will they react to it and your ideas?

此外,不要忘记利益相关者在这方面的需求。他们想通过游戏化这个系统达到什么目的?他们会对你的想法作何反应?

Ideate – come up with ideas! Propose solutions and then analyse them (more in that in a moment). This is part of an iterative process, at this stage though there is no right answer.

想法——想出点子来!提出解决方案,然后进行分析(稍后再详细说明)。这是一个迭代过程的一部分,在这个阶段,虽然没有正确的答案。

Experiment with the best ideas. Pretotype, prototype, and do it again until you have something you think is worth taking forward.

尝试最好的想法。预先打印,原型,然后再做一遍,直到你有了你认为值得推进的东西。

Test your pretotype or prototype with the target audience and with the stakeholders. Iterate between testing and experimentation until you are ready to release at least a minimum viable product (MVP).

与目标受众和利益相关者一起测试您的预制版本或原型。在测试和实验之间迭代,直到您准备好至少发布最小可行性产品(MVP)。

Whilst this is set out as a systematic process it is all iterative. At any point, you could go back to the start, but by the time you are into the experimentation phase, you should have a solid idea of where you are going.

虽然这是一个系统化的过程,但它是全部迭代的。在任何时候,你都可以回到开始的时候,但是当你进入实验阶段时,你应该对你要去的地方有一个坚实的想法。

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Figure 78 Gamification Design Thinking Expanded

图78游戏化设计思维扩展

Now, this is all great, but even high innovation must have a reality check from time to time. That being the case there are three common “lenses” that can be used to drive and balance innovation.

现在,这一切都是伟大的,但即使是高度创新,也必须时不时地进行现实检验。在这种情况下,有三种常见的“透镜”可以用来驱动和平衡创新。

Innovation Lenses

创新镜头

Desirability: Is the product or solution you are looking at desirable to the users or the stakeholders? It may be great in your mind, but does it hit all the points they need?

合意性: 你正在寻找的产品或解决方案对用户或利益相关者来说是否合意?它可能在你的头脑中是伟大的,但是它是否击中了所有他们需要的要点?

Feasibility: Is your idea possible with current technology and skills? Can it really be done?

可行性: 你的想法是否可能与目前的技术和技能? 它真的可以做到吗?

Viability: Can it be done within the constraints that reality often put upon us. Can it be done to budget and is it sustainable long term?

可行性: 能否在现实经常强加给我们的限制范围内完成。是否可以进行预算,是否可以长期持续?

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Figure 79 Innovation Lenses 图79创新镜头

Applying these lenses to the IdeateExperiment and to a lesser extent, Test phases can save a lot of pain in the long term.

将这些晶状体应用于观点,实验,以及在较小程度上,测试阶段可以在长期内避免很多痛苦。

Really, by the time you are hitting the test phase, you should have a clear view of each lens!

真的,当你进入测试阶段的时候,你应该对每个镜头都有一个清晰的视角!

Using this sort of process is very common in this day and age of constant innovation, but it can help focus your thoughts and designs, especially early on in your processes. Just as gamification should be, it all puts the user’s experience first.

在这个不断创新的时代,使用这种过程是非常普遍的,但是它可以帮助你集中思想和设计,特别是在过程的早期。正如游戏化应该的那样,它把用户体验放在首位。

It Doesn’t Have to Be Digital

它不一定要是数字化的

It is easy to be left with the impression that gamification is all about digital or online creations. Whilst it is true that digital enables a great deal more flexibility and collaboration in systems, it is not the be all and end all!

很容易给人留下这样的印象: 游戏化就是数字或在线创作。虽然数字化确实使系统具有更大的灵活性和协作性,但它并不是万能的,也不是万能的!

There are many examples of analogue gamification, but here I share a simple system I use with my daughters.

有很多模拟游戏化的例子,但是在这里我和我的女儿们分享了一个简单的系统。

The concept of reward charts is well known in parenting circles. You give your child stickers on a chart as they behave in the way they are meant to, or at least in the way you ask them to. It is a nice idea and can work, but as explained in the section about Overjustification effect, they can backfire if used for too long.

奖励图表的概念在父母圈子里是众所周知的。你给你的孩子一张表格上的贴纸,因为他们按照他们的意愿行事,或者至少按照你要求的方式行事。这是一个很好的想法,可以工作,但是正如在关于过度合理化效应的章节中所解释的,如果使用时间太长,它们可能会适得其反。

Once reward charts stopped working with my eldest daughter, I created a simple Behaviour Meter that is now stuck to our fridge. It has a scale of 0 to 10 and that’s it.

一旦奖励表格不再适用于我的大女儿,我就创建了一个简单的行为表,现在贴在我们的冰箱上。它有一个0到10的范围,仅此而已。

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Figure 80 Simple analogue example of gamification

图80简单的游戏化模拟例子

Throughout the day, my wife and I alter the position of the arrow depending on how my daughter is behaving. We don’t tell her what the current reading is – she must look at the feedback for herself. Of course, this is on top of other verbal feedback we are giving her as well. However, this gives her a fixed reminder of how we feel she is doing.

一整天,我和妻子都会根据女儿的行为来调整箭头的位置。我们不会告诉她当前的阅读量——她必须自己看反馈。当然,这是在我们给她的其他口头反馈之上的。然而,这给了她一个固定的提醒,让我们知道她正在做什么。

There are no rewards attached to her rating on the chart, it is just there as a way of giving her relevant feedback. After about a year of using the chart, my daughter added a second arrow. The second arrow represents where she feels her behaviour is on the scale. If there is a difference, we discuss why and what needs to be done to close the gap. It is very simple, but as with a lot of gamification, just giving feedback can solve many issues.

在图表上,她的评分没有附加任何奖励,这只是给她相关反馈的一种方式。使用这个图表大约一年之后,我女儿添加了第二个箭头。第二个箭头代表她认为她的行为是在天平上。如果存在差异,我们将讨论为什么需要做什么来缩小差距。它非常简单,但是就像许多游戏化一样,提供反馈可以解决许多问题。

I mentioned earlier a similar example I created to get my youngest daughter to eat more vegetables! Looking more like the traditional reward chart, this focused on a story. Over the summer holiday she had to defeat some of Batgirl’s greatest foes, by eating certain vegetables.  Each bad guy had a vegetable associated to them. She could choose who she was fighting that day and had to eat a portion of that vegetable. Once she had eaten the specified amount, she got a small reward and defeated that bad guy. Once she had defeated all the bad guys, she got to take on the Joker by eating a meal with at least three of the vegetables on her plate.

我之前提到过一个类似的例子,我创建这个例子是为了让我的小女儿多吃蔬菜!这看起来更像是传统的奖励表,而是集中在一个故事上。在暑假期间,她不得不通过吃一些蔬菜来击败蝙蝠女的一些最大的敌人。每个坏蛋都有一个蔬菜。她可以选择那天和谁打架,并且必须吃一份蔬菜。一旦她吃了规定的量,她得到了一个小奖励,并打败了那个坏家伙。一旦她打败了所有的坏蛋,她就可以通过吃一顿盘子里至少有三种蔬菜的饭来对付小丑。

 

The End 结束

 

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

 

That’s pretty much it. My sympathies if you have read this far, especially if you already had the first edition! This is where we shall part ways. My Master has nothing left for me, so read these last pieces of advice and start creating. I have my own work to finish.

差不多就是这样。我的同情,如果你已经读到这一点,特别是如果你已经有了第一版!这是我们分道扬镳的地方。我的主人已经没有什么留给我了,所以请阅读最后这些建议并开始创造吧。我还有自己的工作要做。

Just as all good stories must have a beginning, they must also have an end. I hope this book has given you enough of an insight into the many faceted worlds of gamification to be able to start making use of it in your own projects.

正如所有好的故事都必须有一个开始,它们也必须有一个结束。我希望这本书已经给了你足够的洞察力去理解游戏化的多方面的世界,使你能够开始在你自己的项目中使用它。

I wanted to leave you with a few last tips and things to think about.

我想留给你们一些最后的建议和需要思考的事情。

The first is don’t be bogged down by definitions. I spent time at the beginning of the book explaining Game Thinking and why I feel it is helpful; however, the reality is we will never fully agree on the answer to the question “What is gamification?” A better question is “Does this solve the problem”, or “Is this the best solution for the users?” It doesn’t matter if you use gamification, games or Ninja Monkeys.

第一,不要被定义所困扰。在这本书的开头,我花了一些时间来解释游戏思维,以及为什么我觉得它是有帮助的; 然而,事实是,我们永远不会完全同意“什么是游戏化”这个问题的答案一个更好的问题是“这能解决问题吗”,或者“这对用户来说是最好的解决方案吗?”无论你使用的是游戏化、游戏还是忍者猴子。

As a gamifier, you are a problem solver. Your job is to solve an issue the client is having. The likelihood is you will favour a solution with a game like flavour – but I would hope that you would not reject a solution just because it is not what you would consider “proper” gamification.

作为一个游戏者,你是一个问题解决者。你的工作是解决客户的问题。你可能会喜欢一种游戏风格的解决方案——但我希望你不会仅仅因为一种解决方案不是你所认为的“适当的”游戏化就拒绝它。

Never reject an idea that may be better than yours, just because you don’t know how to execute it. If the answer is to create a game, it doesn’t matter if you think that is true gamification – it is still the answer and you should do what you can to facilitate it!

不要仅仅因为你不知道如何执行,就拒绝一个可能比你的想法更好的想法。如果答案是创造一个游戏,那么你认为这是否是真正的游戏化并不重要——它仍然是答案,你应该尽你所能促进它!

Finally, I will leave you with my seven essential tips for gamification glory!

最后,我将留给你我的七个游戏化荣耀的必要技巧!

Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play-游戏化中文社区

Figure 81 7 Top Tips 图817顶尖技巧

 

The End 结束

Glossary 词汇表

Autonomy: Freedom/agency to act as you wish.

自主权: 按照自己的意愿行事的自由/机构。

Engagement: Active, focused and intrinsically motivated participation.

参与: 积极、专注和内在动机的参与。

Extrinsic Reward: Something that is external, such as monetary rewards for doing something.

外在奖励: 外在的东西,如做某事的金钱奖励。

Fiero: An Italian word that is used in gamification to describe a sense of great achievement or triumph over adversity – the sort that has you fist pumping in the air!

Fiero: 一个意大利词汇,用于游戏化,用来描述一种巨大的成就感或者战胜逆境的胜利感——就是那种你挥舞着拳头的感觉!

Flow: A concept described by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. In gamification, we talk about it as a place between boredom and frustration where the skills of the player match the level of challenge. They lose all sense of self and time seems to go by much faster.

流: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi 描述的概念。在游戏化中,我们把它说成是一个介于无聊和沮丧之间的地方,玩家的技能与挑战水平相匹配。他们失去了所有的自我意识,时间似乎过得更快。

Game Aesthetics: The experience of the end user.

游戏美学: 终端用户的体验。

Game Dynamics: Emergent activities of the users as they interact with mechanics.

游戏动力学: 用户与机制交互时的突发活动。

Game Elements/Components: These are bits that are taken from games, such as progress bars, missions, points, badges etc.

游戏元素/组件: 这些是从游戏中获取的信息,比如进度条、任务、积分、徽章等等。

Game Mechanics: Explicit sets of rules that define the outcomes of user activities.

游戏机制: 明确的规则集定义用户活动的结果。

Game Thinking: The use of games and game-like approaches to solve problems and create better experiences.

游戏思维: 使用游戏和类似游戏的方法来解决问题和创造更好的体验。

Gamification: The use of game thinking to create more game-like experiences.

游戏化: 运用游戏思维来创造更多类似游戏的体验。

Intrinsic motivation: Personal/internal reasons to do something. Relatedness, Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose are examples of this.

内在动机: 做某事的个人/内在原因。关联性、自主性、掌握程度和目的就是这样的例子。

Loyalty: Allegiance to something, for example, a brand, that goes beyond normal interest. People loyal to a brand will go out of their way, ignoring value and convenience to own products from that brand.

忠诚: 对某种东西的忠诚,例如一个品牌,这种忠诚超越了正常的兴趣。忠于一个品牌的人会不顾一切,忽视自己品牌产品的价值和便利性。

Mastery: Achieving something such as learning a new skill.

掌握: 达到某种目标,比如学习一项新技能。

Naches: A Yiddish word that means “feeling of pride at the achievement of your children”. In gamification, we use this word to describe the feeling people get when people achieve something thanks to the help they have given them.

纳奇斯: 意第绪语中的一个单词,意思是“对你孩子的成就感到骄傲”。在游戏化中,我们用这个词来描述人们在获得帮助后的感受。

On-boarding: Refers to the first steps taken in a new system, for example, an interactive tutorial.

入职: 指在新系统中采取的第一个步骤,例如,交互式教程。

Overjustification Effect: The decrease of intrinsic motivation to perform a task or tasks when an extrinsic reward is introduced, and the reward becomes more important than the original task.

过度辩护效应: 当外在奖励引入后,执行任务的内在动机减少,奖励变得比原来的任务更重要。

 

Player: Also called the user, the target person who will be using the gamified system.

玩家: 也称为用户,即将使用游戏化系统的目标人物。

Player Journey: Defined in this book as four or five phases that the user goes through whilst using a system, Discovery, On-boarding, Immersion, Mastery and Replay

玩家之旅: 在这本书中定义为四个或五个阶段,用户通过同时使用一个系统,发现,登机,沉浸,掌握和重播

Purpose: three variations.

目的: 三种变体。

  1. A sense of direction, such as goals or story-lines/narratives.

方向感方向感,如目标或故事情节/叙述。

  1. Epic Meaning: the feeling that you are involved in something with greater meaning or purpose.

史诗意义: 感觉你正在参与一些更有意义或目的的事情。

  1. Altruism (selfless acts for the benefit of others).

利他主义(为他人利益而无私的行为)。

Relatedness: Social connection to others.

相关性: 与他人的社会联系。

Serious Game: A real game that is built primarily for purposes other than pure entertainment.

严肃游戏: 一个真正的游戏,主要是为了目的而不是纯粹的娱乐。

Underjustification Effect: The decrease in motivation to perform a task or tasks when supposedly motivational techniques are applied in place of perceived air compensation or treatment.

理由不足效应: 当所谓的激励技巧被用来代替感知的空气补偿或治疗时,执行一项或多项任务的动力下降。

 

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Index 索引

Contents 内容

Acknowledgements 鸣谢

Introduction 引言

The Theory of Games, Play and Gamification游戏理论、游戏与游戏化

What is Gamification? 什么是游戏化?

What Are Games and Play? 什么是游戏和玩?

What Are Game Mechanics? 什么是游戏机制?

What is Fun? 什么是乐趣?

What is Game Thinking? 什么是游戏思维?

Gamification and Game Thinking in Practice游戏化与实践中的游戏思维

Ethical Considerations of  Gamification Gamification 的伦理考虑

The Science of Gamification Gamification 的科学

What Motivates Us? 是什么激励着我们?

The Intrinsic Motivation RAMP 内在动机 RAMP

What is Flow and Why is it  Important?什么是心流,为什么它很重要?

User Types in Gamification  (The HEXAD)游戏化中的用户类型(HEXAD)

The Neuroscience of Gamification Gamification 的神经科学

Building Gamified Solutions 构建游戏化的解决方案

How to Start with The User Journey如何开始用户之旅

How to Use Points, Badges and Leaderboards如何使用积分、徽章和排行榜

How to Set Clear Goals 如何设定明确的目标

How to Design Good Feedback and Reward Systems如何设计好的反馈和奖励系统

How to Design a Simple Gamified System如何设计一个简单的游戏化系统

How to Understand Emotions in Gamification Design如何理解游戏化设计中的情感

How to Use Narrative to Create Deeper Experiences如何利用叙事创造更深层次的体验

How to Create Playful Experiences 如何创造有趣的体验

How to Handle Cheating 如何处理作弊

How to See it From the User’s  Perspective如何从用户的角度看待它

Gamification Mechanics and  Elements 游戏化机制和要素

Learning from Games: Exclusivity & Fortnite 从游戏中学习: 排他性和 Fortnite

Planning and Implementing your Gamification Design计划和实施你的游戏化设计

Gamification Design Framework 游戏化设计框架

How to Keep the User Engaged如何让用户参与进来

How to Balance a Gamified System如何平衡游戏化系统

Keeping it Simple 保持简单

Tying Loyalty into Gamification 把忠诚带入 Gamification

Modelling Gamified Systems 模拟游戏化系统

Final Thoughts 最后的想法

Five Steps to a Happier Life with Gamification通过游戏化获得幸福生活的五个步骤

Other Design Tips 其他设计贴士

The End 结束

Glossary 词汇表

References 参考资料

Index 索引

About the author 关于作者

 

About the author 关于作者

穿着西装的男人在微笑

描述已自动生成 Andrzej is a father of two, husband (of one – because bigamy is frowned upon apparently…), reasonable guitarist, games lover, Batman nerd and Star Wars geek. 安杰伊是两个孩子的父亲,丈夫(一个孩子的丈夫——因为重婚显然是不受欢迎的… …) ,通情达理的吉他手,游戏爱好者,蝙蝠侠迷和星球大战极客

Over the years, he has had a few jobs, from web designer to learning technologist to consultant. What has always remained the same is his belief that games have much more to offer the world than just entertainment.

多年来,他做过几份工作,从网页设计师到技术专家再到顾问。他始终坚信,游戏不仅仅是娱乐,还能为世界提供更多的东西。

This led him to getting involved with gamification in his spare time. Now he is a recognised expert on the topic, writing a regular blog about gamification, keynote speaking, consulting on and designing solutions – and writing the occasional book.

这使得他在业余时间参与到游戏化中来。现在,他是这个领域公认的专家,定期撰写关于游戏化、主题演讲、咨询和设计解决方案的博客,并且不定期出书。

Following the publication of this book, Andrzej went missing again for several weeks. This time his wife found a small ninja mask and a horse shoe with a note.

这本书出版后,Andrzej 又失踪了几个星期。这一次,他的妻子发现了一个小忍者面具和一个带有字条的马蹄铁。

“Even Unicorns Dream of Flying” 《连独角兽都梦想飞翔》

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